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Exploring HIV disease indicators at MDR-TB treatment initiation in South Africa
(International Union Against Tuberculosis and Lung Disease)
BACKGROUND: Understanding relationships between HIV and multidrug-resistant TB (MDR-TB) is crucial for ensuring successful MDR-TB outcomes.METHODS: We used a cross-sectional analysis to evaluate sociodemographic and clinical characteristics as correlates of antiretroviral therapy (ART) use, having an HIV viral load (VL) result, and HIV viral suppression in a cross-sectional sample of people with HIV (PWH) and MDR-TB enrolled in a cluster-randomized trial of nurse case management to improve MDR-TB outcomes.RESULTS: Among 1,479 PWH, the mean age was 37.1 years; 809 (54.7%) were male, and 881 (59.6%) were taking ART. Housing location, employment status, and CD4 count differed significantly between those taking vs. those not taking ART. Among the 881 taking ART, 681 (77.3%) had available HIV VL results. Housing location, CD4 count, and prior history of TB differed significantly between those with and without a VL result. Among the 681 with a VL result, 418 (61.4%) were virally suppressed. Age, education level, CD4 count, TB history, housing location, and ART type differed significantly between those with and without viral suppression.CONCLUSION: PWH presenting for MDR-TB treatment with a history of TB, taking a protease inhibitor, or living in a township may risk poor MDR-TB outcomes.
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Pitching Your Creative Idea: Advancing Artistic Agency and the Creative Project
(American Journal of Arts Management)
In an evolving arts industry, emerging artists must be equipped to enter the industry with adaptable skills for flexible arts careers. The Peabody Conservatory of the Johns Hopkins University seeks to address this in part through a project-based grant writing course, Pitching Your Creative Idea. Grounded in a constructivist approach and utilizing the Universal Design for Learning framework, the course takes a blended learning approach to create a relevant, engaging, and autonomous educational experience for students as part of a core professional skills curriculum at Peabody. Building on the success of the course, demonstrated through evaluations and student outcomes, there are further opportunities for iteration, including expansion of the course content into an open educational resource.
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Impact Evaluation of Progress Learning in the Douglas County School System
(Center for Research and Reform in Education, 2024-01) Cook, Michael; Eisinger, Jane; Ross, Steven
The current study was a retrospective mixed-methods quasi-experimental design (QED) study to determine the effects of Progress Learning on Grades 6-8 mathematics and ELA achievement by comparison growth on the Georgia Milestones Mathematics and ELA assessments of students who received Progress Learning services, in relation to students that did not receive Progress Learning. Supplementary analyses examining the associations between Progress Learning usage metrics and achievement gains are also performed in this study. The results of the main impact analyses showed a positive and statistically significant impact of Progress Learning on student mathematics achievement, with treatment students outgaining comparison students by more than 4 points. The results of the main ELA impact analysis showed a directionally positive, though not statistically significant, impact on ELA achievement, with treatment students outgaining comparison students by more than 3 points. Effect sizes of these analyses ranged between .06 to .09 SDs, indicating small, though practically meaningful, program impacts of Progress Learning on student achievement, especially in mathematics. Usage analyses showed significant positive associations between student-level Progress Learning usage metrics and achievement gains. Correlations between average Progress Learning activity scores and achievement gains were of particular note, with observed correlations of magnitude above .4 in ELA and above .6 in mathematics. This gives preliminary evidence supporting modest to moderate predictive validity of Progress Learning activity scores in relation to Georgia Milestones scores. These associations remained significant and positive when controlling for prior achievement and demographics, using HLMs similar to those used in the main impact analyses.
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International Finance and Economics Review (InFER) - Issue no. 4 (June 2020)
(Johns Hopkins University, School of Advanced International Studies (SAIS), 2020) Olson, Leif; Coffey, Nathanael; Blake, Andy; Bhaskar, Shreyans; Cheng, Yuyin; Zhang, Rongjin; Johnson, Kubi; Iyer, Roshan; Qi, Yiyuan; Chen, Jessie; Wilhoite, John; Bhagwati, Jagdish; Fichtner, Jason; Abdalla, Youssef; Bhargava, Apoorv; Guan, Haozheyi; Tsiknia, Alexatrini; Colanduoni, Anna; Martinez, Gerardo; Ahluwalia, Rohan; Amine, Razan; Zhou, Siyao
InFER articles focus on economic theories and the capstone papers highlight data driven analyses that make inferences to business and policy decisions.
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International Finance and Economics Review (InFER) - Issue no. 3 (June 2019)
(Johns Hopkins University, School of Advanced International Studies (SAIS), 2019) Bhargava, Apoorv; Cha, Joniel; Fiorito, Alejandro; Redmond, Michael; Garcia, Naomi; Huang, Tianlei; Jung, Chae Young; Krishna, Pravin; Matthijs, Matthias; Tang, Heiwai; Clingenpeel, Cale; Vnukova, Yulia; Levine, Sydney; Cohen, Micah; Donoho, Adam; Eid, Yara; Guan, Haozheyi; Yin, Qiuyan; Zhou, Juncheng
InFER articles focus on economic theories and the capstone papers highlight data driven analyses that make inferences to business and policy decisions.
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International Finance and Economics Review (InFER) - Issue no. 2 (June 2018)
(Johns Hopkins University, School of Advanced International Studies (SAIS), 2018) Li, Kun; Zhuo, Xinyue; Zhang, Kun; Trang, Eddy; Austin, Nathaniel; Jung, Chae Young (Kevin); Balsubramani, Samyukta; Huang, Ziyi; Lawrence, Amanda; Kalfa, S. Yanki; Lee, Jai-Ryung (Jenny); Tershakovec, Paul; Han, Soyoung; Huang, He; Jin, Seung Wook; Kaddoura, Ghada; Kil, Hajung; Yu, Yang'ouxiang
InFER articles focus on economic theories and the capstone papers highlight data driven analyses that make inferences to business and policy decisions.
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International Finance and Economics Review (InFER) - Issue no. 1 (April 2018)
(Johns Hopkins University, School of Advanced International Studies (SAIS), 2018) Lee, Jai-Ryung; Yu, Yang'ouxiang; Fichtner, Jason; Krishna, Pravin; Marquez, Jaime; White, Mark; Meijia, Christopher; Berry, Jared; Greene, Meghan; Nair, Medha; Han, Soyoung; Huang, He; Jin, Seung Wook; Kaddoura, Ghada; Kil, Hajung
InFER articles focus on economic theories and the capstone papers highlight data driven analyses that make inferences to business and policy decisions.
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ENERGY TRANSITION IN DEVELOPING COUNTRIES: A CASE STUDY OF CHINA AND A COMPARATIVE ANALYSIS WITH INDIA
(2023-12) Yayue Huang
As developing nations like China and India surge onto the global stage, their rapid expansion comes at a cost: a growing dependence on fossil fuels that fuels the looming greenhouse gas crisis. These two rising powers face the monumental challenge of energy transition, disentangling their economies from the carbon legacy of the past. Despite that China and India both put in enormous efforts in energy transition, they have different approaches. This paper focuses on the comparison of China and India in energy transition through analyses of data and policy frameworks. This paper also dissects the interplay of three key elements, which are regulatory structures shaping policy, technological advancements defining energy options, and financial mechanisms driving investments. This research discusses how the three elements interact and influence India and China in their path towards a cleaner and greener future by examining both quantitative data and qualitative factors. China benefited a lot from its centralized government because it can implement any infrastructure that can facilitate renewable energy deployment and advancement efficiently in a top-down manner. India, on the other hand, does not have the benefits of being a centralized nation. It still has fragmented regulatory frameworks that encourage innovation and entrepreneurial vigor in renewable technologies. Understanding China and India's unique energy transition journeys is crucial for policymakers, technology developers, and social activists to examining China and India’s successes and challenges to seek to break free from fossil fuel dependence. This thesis intends to provide actionable insights in policy design, technology deployment, and social mobilization, offering practical tools to build a sustainable future for all.
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Evaluating the Role of Nuclear Energy in Virginia’s Zero-Carbon Electricity Future
(2023-12) Victoria Higgins
Virginia faces unprecedented load growth due to data center development in Dominion territory, a phenomenon which significantly complicates the state’s commitment to a zero-carbon electricity mix and creates enormous risk for Dominion ratepayers. This paper seeks to present stakeholders with a clear sense of the benefits and challenges of meeting surging demand with and without new nuclear facilities. First, I analyze Dominion’s 2023 Integrated Resource Plan to demonstrate the scale of the demand surge and the exorbitant cost of non-compliance with state climate laws. While alternative plans are presented, I find that they ignore real-world factors like local solar opposition and the eventual retirement of the state’s extensive natural gas generation fleet and nuclear plants. Two theoretical portfolios are examined – one which meets Virginia’s 2045 demand with only existing nuclear, variable renewable energy (VRE), and battery storage; and one which incorporates new nuclear. The VRE-reliant portfolio provides material economic benefits, but presents a greater reliability risk and is significantly more land-intensive. I conclude that to meet state climate goals while meeting demand affordably, a) utility planning processes must be more transparent and inclusive; b) local solar bans should be eliminated, while preserving localities ability to consider proposals on a project-by-project basis; c) the state should not permit utilities to gamble on major new nuclear projects in the short-term, and d) community engagement and planning should begin for new nuclear facilities in the medium-term as the demand picture and the economics of new nuclear become clearer.
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24/7 Carbon-Free Electricity (CFE) in the US: Qualitative Research & Policy Recommendations
(2023-12) Olivia Dawson-Olson
With potential to transform how the clean energy transition unfolds, the 24/7 carbon-free electricity (CFE) movement has recently been gaining momentum in the energy and climate policy space in the US. The 24/7 CFE aims to better align clean electricity supply with end use including principles like temporal matching supply and demand, energy deliverability, and resource additionality. This research conducted literature review and a survey of thought leaders to synthesize a wholistic set of policy recommendations for 24/7 CFE in the US. The positive objectives of the 24/7 CFE movement are well established. However, additional streamlining and evaluation is needed to guide successful design and implementation. Additionally, integration of 24/7 CFE principles within the broader policy landscape warrants further consideration. This research is intended to aid interested parties in implementing 24/7 CFE in a manner promoting an effective, timely clean energy transition and decarbonization of the electric sector.