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Oral History of Frank Cicero
(Johns Hopkins University Sheridan Libraries, 2016-05-19) Frank Cicero
Oral History of Bob Cicero
(Johns Hopkins University Sheridan Libraries, 2016-05-19) Bob Cicero
(2023-12) Alghader, Majdi
Since 2018, the U.S. government has raised concerns about foreign influence in U.S. research threatening national security and undermining the country’s economy, science openness, academic reputation, and research integrity. Maintaining an open research environment and combating undue foreign influence is an emerging challenge that demands serious action. The purpose of this paper is to investigate the reasons behind foreign influence and discuss the most recent federal changes. Several factors have contributed to foreign influence in U.S. academic research, such as the COI, morals/ ethics, new forms of employment, new organizational structures of modern research institutions, trends of global collaborations, and the FGTPs. Federal agencies such as the NIH, NSF, and DOD have made significant changes to strengthen their policies and increase their disclosure requirements in areas such as pre-award, post-award areas, and export control; these efforts are essential to pave the way for other necessary steps from research institutions to mitigate the risk. The DOD's new screening policy and decision matrix are beneficial in reducing research security risks and inspiring research institutions to create similar matrices using the DOD's indicators to develop risk management plans. Strict disclosure requirements and matrices to determine the risks for foreign influence are vital achievements from these federal agencies; however, more actions are required. Honesty and transparency of disclosures are critical factors. These new policies are insufficient without transparency in the disclosure process because the disclosure of these activities falls under researchers' discretion and their perception of transparency; thus, due to the complexity of this issue and the importance of global research collaborations, there is a need for a global academic unified digital system to serve as a real-time database for current employment and appointments of key researchers listed in research protocols. Universities can participate in this database and disclose their researchers’ appointments and employment.
Detection of ultrashort-chain and other per- and polyfluoroalkyl substances (PFAS) in U.S. bottled water
(Elsevier BV)
Per- and polyfluoroalkyl substances (PFAS) are compounds of emerging concern due to their persistence in the global water cycle and detection in drinking water sources. However, PFAS have been poorly studied in bottled water, especially in the United States. This study investigated the occurrence of PFAS and related factors in 101 uniquely labelled bottled water products for sale in the U.S. Products were screened for 32 target PFAS by solid phase extraction-liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (SPE-LC-MS/MS). Fifteen of 32 measured analytes were detected, consisting primarily of C3-C10 perfluorocarboxylic acids (PFCA) and C3-C6 and C8 perfluorosulfonic acids (PFSA). PFAS were detected above method detection limits in 39/101 tested products. The Σ32PFAS concentrations detected were 0.17–18.87 ng/L with a median of 0.98 ng/L; 97% of samples were below 5 ng/L. PFCA (83%) and short-chain perfluoroalkyl acids (PFAA) containing 5 or less CF2 groups (67%) were more prevalent on a mass basis than PFSA and longer-chain PFAA, respectively. Ultrashort-chain PFPrA, measured for the first time in bottled water, accounted for the greatest individual fraction of detected PFAS mass (42%) and was found almost exclusively in products labeled as Spring water. Purified water products contained significantly less PFAS than Spring water products, which was attributed to the use of reverse osmosis (RO) treatment in the majority of Purified waters (25/35) compared to Spring waters (1/45). RO-treated products contained significantly lower Σ32PFAS, long-chain, short-chain, and PFPrA concentrations than products without RO. Although no enforceable PFAS regulations exist for bottled water in the U.S., the finding that some products approach levels of concern justify a framework for monitoring PFAS in bottled water production.
(2023-11) Sweet, Aaliyah
International collaborative research incorporates cross-country groups that allocate research affairs, manage research, and encourage research outcomes to develop comprehension and encourage affirmative alterations in execution. International research can benefit a specific field, incorporating more important influence and extensive pertinence. It also allows us to enlarge research discoveries to various cultures, districts, and communities. Also, international collaborative research offers opportunities to create reciprocally advantageous connections and decipher worldwide issues. However, with international collaboration, the challenges that come with it can also increase. Utilizing responses from questionnaires and articles on international research collaborations, this project aims to display the need for educational programs that can assist research administrators with overcoming barriers to international research collaborations. The responses from the questionnaires demonstrate that research administrators want educational opportunities to gain experience in how to deal with challenges that come from international research collaborations.
Crystalglobulin-associated nephropathy presenting as MGRS in a case of monoclonal B-cell lymphocytosis: a case report
(Springer Science and Business Media LLC)
Abstract Background Crystalglobulin-associated nephropathy (CAN), a rare subtype of monoclonal gammopathy, usually associated with multiple myeloma and occasionally monoclonal gammopathy of uncertain significance (MGUS), is characterized by occluding monoclonal pseudothrombi within renal glomerular capillaries and/or interstitial arterioles. Ultrastructurally, these pseudothrombi are unique for having a crystalline substructure. We describe a case of an adult patient with monoclonal B-cell lymphocytosis (MBL) and acute renal failure whose kidney biopsy revealed a rare diagnosis of CAN. Case presentation A 63-year old male presented with a 2-month history of edema, arthralgia and malaise. He had acute kidney injury with hematoproteinuria on urine analysis. Serum and urine protein electrophoresis were both negative. A renal biopsy however revealed features of CAN. Organomegaly, bone pain and lymphadenopathy were absent. A repeat serum electrophoresis was positive for IgA kappa and a free light chain assay showed elevated free kappa light chains. Flow cytometry done subsequently revealed a diagnosis of MBL, chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) type. Conclusion CAN in association with MBL/CLL has not been previously described in literature, and our case highlights yet another instance of monoclonal gammopathy of renal significance (MGRS) where a small B-cell clone resulted in extensive renal pathology without systemic manifestations.