The Center for Africana Studies Working Papers Series is designed to offer cutting edge scholarship on important topics related to the study of the Africa, the African-American experience, and the African Diaspora. Many of the papers are the products of conferences, reading groups, workshops, and symposia sponsored by the Center. A limited number of papers have been independently submitted for review by members of our board and for publication on our website. These works offer a preliminary look at topics, research, and intellectual debates that will soon appear in article or book form. The Working Papers Series is designed to allow scholars a venue to launch their work to the wider academic public for feedback and discussion.