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ItemTuch, Hans; Tuch, Ruth; and Breda, Gigliola - Oral History Interview(2009-10-30) Tuch, Hans; Tuch, Ruth; Breda, GigliolaPlease listen to attached audio file. Thank you. ItemMiller, Hope Simon - Oral History Interview(2010-04-01) Miller, Hope SimonWhat originally brought Hope Simon Miller to SAIS was seeing an ad in the New York Times that said that this new school was being formed with money from big business as well as government funds and as it sounded like a splendid partnership, she decided to apply for a fellowship. Prior to attending SAIS, she attended the Calhoun School and then Barnard College as an undergraduate. There, one could specialize in an area of the world of that person’s choice, and Miller chose the Soviet Union and Near East. Incidentally, Miller had originally wanted to go to Wellesley College (wanted to get away from home), but she (and others) was refused on a religious basis and that had caused articles to be printed in several well known newspapers in the country (i.e. the Atlantic Monthly). She was told that if she got good marks, she could transfer….which she did, but they still did not take her. In what she thought would be her last year at Barnard (before transferring), she decided to get heavily involved in everything….she stood at the opera, stood in Carnegie Hall (for concerts before Lincoln Center existed), etc. At the end of the year, she liked New York and therefore decided to stay at Barnard. Also, war broke out and no one had dates then, but because Columbia was there, we had dates from the Mitchell School. While at SAIS, Miller recalls there being about 30 students of which roughly 12 were women. Most students lived in the dorm. She and three other women lived on the same floor as the men, which she says was a lot of fun and was unusual for the time. Also, C. Grove Hanes, the professor who started the Bologna Center, lived right across the hall. She was impressed by the faculty and remembers having class sometime at 7:00 or 7:30 a.m. One time, she remembers having to have class early because a certain professor had to catch an early flight to New York to deal with a UN issue related to Iran and oil. She liked that they were always getting the most recent / updated news. Miller recalls there being a rigorous language program while she was at SAIS, requiring students to have a working knowledge of four languages while they were there. She learned English, French, Russian and Spanish. When she graduated from SAIS in 1946, she thought she would work at the State Department. She was invited to a reception being held at the Wildenstein Art Galleries in New York. At this reception, she ran into a gentleman who asked if she would be interested in working with him – he worked for the UN on human rights issues. She agreed and then worked with him for three or four years. Next, she met and married her husband, a gynecologist, Arthur Miller, and they moved to Brooklyn. The commute was not easy. She soon got pregnant with her first son, Lane Miller (who later became a student at SAIS). At that time, she worked at home, editing papers for the assistant or under secretary general. Eventually, she went back to the UN (hospitality committee) once her youngest of three sons was able to go to school by himself. She is still heavily involved with the UN. In her career, she mostly got involved on the subject of women and children. She worked for UNICEF on related projects for several years. Part of this involved working with the mothers of these children on a project called UNIFEM. Eventually, UNIFEM became a part of UN WOMEN (currently run by the former U.S. Ambassador to Chile). In life, Miller also remembers meeting high ranked figures like Hillary Clinton, Madeline Albright and Eleanor Roosevelt at different times in her life. She met Eleanor Roosevelt when she was in college. Every Tuesday, there was an assembly in the gym where they would try to have a notable speaker come for a presentation. As the dean of Barnard was good friends with Eleanor Roosevelt at the time, she was asked and willing to come be a speaker one day. Eight of them had lunch in the dean’s apartment and Miller got to sit next to Eleanor Roosevelt. Later, when Hillary Clinton was at the White House (as First Lady), she and Madeline Albright had invited 100 outstanding women to the White House. They both addressed the group….that was exciting and they took lots of pictures. Miller also had a chance separately honor Hillary Clinton and Madeline Albright at two other separate occasions. In her career, Miller travelled every two years for UNICEM. She recalls being in Moscow, Barcelona, Manila and Beijing. She thought it was absolutely fascinating and made wonderful friends. No one country stood out for her – they were all great. Today, Miller is still very active in her work. In terms of advice for current students, she recommends having strong language skills (and to be bi-lingual if at all possible). She also thinks that the internship program is very important for students and that they should take full advantage of it. On a personal note, Miller has been living in NYC for decades. She is still married to her husband, Arthur (now 92) and had three sons, Lane, Scott and Lloyd. Several years ago, Scott passed away from a condition he had had since he was young (growth of benign tumors in his body of which one later became malignant). Both Lane and Lloyd are married. Lloyd has a daughter and Lane is married to Anne Lyons who is of Native American decent (significant as they are both lawyers who work on Native American cases). Miller also had a 93 year old brother who passed away earlier this year. ItemPlatt, Nicholas - Oral History Interview(2010-04-01) Platt, NicholasWhat originally brought Amb. Platt to SAIS was Paul Nitze. His son was Platt’s classmate in college. Platt went to Paul Nitze for advice on how to get into the Foreign Service and was told to go straight into the Foreign Service if he could get in….as the Foreign Service would train him directly. He said to come back and talk with him if he did not get in. So, Platt took the Foreign Service exam in the spring of his senior year at Harvard and did not pass….so he went to see Paul Nitze, who arranged a meeting for Platt at SAIS. That is how Platt got acquainted with SAIS and he did attend. He and his wife (he had recently married) moved to Georgetown and Platt came to SAIS everyday for two years. Occasionally, Platt would go out to Paul Nitze’s farm on the weekend – their families had become very close. While at Harvard, Platt did a summer in London as a volunteer, which brought him overseas, representing the U.S. point-of-view in a completely different culture (the Jewish cockney culture in the east end of London). He came back his junior year, thinking that the Foreign Service was going to be for him….he took German that year and thought he would be a Europeanist. He took the first Foreign Service exam and passed the ‘writtens’ – the ‘orals’ were a bit more of a challenge….and they wanted to find reasons for him to come back. One year later, he had enrolled at SAIS, worked at brokerage house to get practical experience in economics, was married and had a child and then passed the ‘orals’ portion of the exam. His chance to get into the Foreign Service then coincided with the very end of his SAIS career….in April of 1959, he received his call from the Foreign Service. In June of 1959, he left for boot camp at the Foreign Service (at Arlington Towers). While at SAIS, he has many memories. Platt recalls SAIS being much smaller in those days. There were 75 students and the limitation was dictated by the capacity of the two old houses next to each other on Florida Avenue….it was old and rickety and friendly. Because the library space was limited, the focus at the school was really on how one could do live research with government officials and Foreign Policy practitioners….and one was graded on interviews had with significant people who understood the Foreign Policy process (and this got SAIS students running around town meeting with such people). Platt was one of Roger Hillsman’s (Head of Intelligence and Research and later East Asian Affairs) research assistance. He recalls other extraordinarily striking professors. One was Paul Linebarger who taught “Psychological Warfares” and took his students out to have Chinese meals. Another was Professor Tucker who did all of the lectures on Europe. Platt recalls Tucker’s climactic last lecture on the end of WWII, on a spring afternoon….and as he came to the end of the class and series, the ceiling fell down….one of the students had to be carted off….it was as striking moment. He also recalls Hans Morgenthau who came in to give lectures. Later, Platt recalls himself also coming back to SAIS and teaching a course on “Internal Chinese Politics.” Platt also remembers that Paul Nitze was a force and that Washington, D.C. itself was a wonderful and educational place to be at the time. At the A-100 course, Platt learned of his first assignment in the Foreign Service…..Ontario, Canada. For him at the time, this was disappointing as it was contrary to his plans to be kind of a cold warrior in Europe. The idea of going to Windsor Ontario, due south of Detroit to issue visas was a subject of hilarity to his colleagues. In retrospect, Platt feels that it was a beneficial assignment as it taught him an important truth about working in the government: “people in the personnel department of the government, do not care about what you already know….and the only way to add a rudder to your career is to convince them to train you in something that’s really interesting and really expensive.” Later in 1959, Platt ran into a person he knew at Harvard who had been in the Foreign Service for several years and who had been studying Chinese. This interested Platt who wondered, at the time, what real opportunities were available in that part of the world. He started looking into it and before leaving for Windsor Ontario, went to the State Department stating his interest in that part of the world. After his two years in Ontario, the training group allowed Platt to start taking Chinese. Both he and his wife were anxious to do this. He took the Chinese language training for a year in Washington and then a year in Taiwan (and his wife took some classes at her expense) and when he came out of the training in 1963, they went to Hong Kong as a China analyst for domestic affairs. He was excited to learn about this strange country with whom the U.S. had no relationship. As luck had it, the Cultural Revolution broke out at the end of 1965, at which point Platt was now the senior working-level China analyst in the China mainland section. What was a quiet scholarly job, turned into the main central focus of the whole mainland section. So, Platt started to get very involved in this job and part of the world…and at that time, the focus was all on Sino-Soviet tensions (which became quite severe). In 1969, Richard Nixon was now assuming the Presidency and was pre-disposed to opening China, which led eventually to his historic trip to China. Platt then asked for a higher level position in the State Department and they gave him a position in the Secretary of State’s office. The lucky thing was…when it came time for Nixon to travel to China, the Secretary of State (Rogers) had to go with him, and so they brought Platt along with them (because he spoke Chinese and knew all the issues). This was a big job for Platt. Platt had to leave China early because he ran into a young woman on a bicycle and she died. At the time, Platt thought this would be the end of what was a promising career in China. David Bruce, the Senior Diplomat and head of the liaison office, comforted him and said that when this happens, people tend to leave the country of their own accord. Platt was then put in a position to branch out and do new things. His next posting was in Japan and he and his family and were there for four great years (that is where they met the Armacosts). It was a compelling time for U.S. policy – the loss of the Vietnam War, pulling out of troops in Korea, etc. Platt came out of the Japanese experience a truly qualified Asia hand. Platt knew Richard Holbrook as a young Foreign Service officer, who came to Japan with Mondale in 1977 (first Carter trip overseas). Platt was with Holbrook in a hotel discussing the new Carter appointments, etc. when Holbrook said, just before going to visit the Prime Minister, “Oh my god, I’ve forgotten my pants.” Platt had a suit, roughly his size that he lent to them (and he wore it the whole time he was in Japan). This, indirectly, led to Platt’s next appointment of the Officer in Charge of Japanese Affairs (which was two levels above his pay grade). Next, Platt went to work for Brzezinski for a year and a half. Armacost is then sent back to the U.S. and Platt goes to work for Harold Brown for one year, taking him through the rest of the Carter Administration, four years in which much has happened (particularly with China). When Carter is not re-elected, Platt wondered what his fate would be. The person in charge of the new appointments was Richard Armitage who said that he wanted the job that Platt had wanted, but that he would help Platt find another job (due to his good reputation). Platt then found himself working for Elliot Abrams as his deputy assistant secretary in UN Affairs – this was in New York. Their focus was on Angola and Namibia. Elliot Abrams leaves his position and Platt becomes the acting Secretary, now working directly with Chester Crocker and they had a great time together (trying to muscle the South Africans into leaving Namibia and Angola). From this work, Platt was asked to fill his first Ambassador position as the U.S. Ambassador to Zambia and after two years, Charles Hill called him and asked Platt to be the Executive Secretary and to come to Washington to meet Charles Schultz. This worked out well for Platt who wanted to come back to the U.S. for a time to be with his sister who was dying of cancer. Platt took this position and it was an extremely rigorous schedule (where the only time he saw his wife – other than early in the morning and late at night – was during lunch on Wednesdays). Schultz worked closely with Platt and gave him access to every meeting he attended (which made it easy for Platt to deliver what Schultz needed from him). Together they went through the Iran Contra. When the two years ended, Platt worked to convince George Schultz that his next position should be as Ambassador to the Philippines. So, this was Platt’s next position. He was excited to be the Ambassador to the Philippines…which turned into a very roller coaster four years with coup attempts, volcanic eruptions, other horrible natural and man-made disasters, earthquakes,…there was a huge mission and huge American community and he learned to lead the hard way and make difficult decisions (in large part due to the complete opposite time difference). They negotiated a base agreement (later repudiated by the Filipinos) and worked closely with President Corazon Aquino. Platt’s wife, a psychiatric social worker, travelled around the country with him and helped him work the community at a time when they were under huge stress. Platt was coming to the end of his career and had one more Ambassador-ship left in him and they (Bush Sr. and Jim Baker) said that Platt should go to Pakistan as Ambassador (on the basis that Platt had a good track record for supporting lady heads of government in weak democracies). Platt made three points: 1) He would happily go – after all, it wasn’t often that one person got to serve in South East, North East and South Asia in one career; 2) Supporting lady heads of government in weak democracies is not a Foreign Service skill; and, 3) Benazir Bhutto and Cory Aquino are two totally different people. Platt moved to Islamabad in 1991as U.S. Ambassador to Pakistan. The war in Afghanistan was coming to an end (and the U.S. had just withdrawn all assistance to Pakistan, saying that it was because they had developed nuclear weapons). After six months, the phone rang, and it was the Board of Trustees of the Asia Society who said that they wanted Platt to come back and be the President of the Asia Society (a job that only comes up every 10 or 12 years). Platt asked them to wait for seven more months and that he would then come back to take that job – and they agreed. Being President of the Asia Society was the perfect retirement job, though it was quite demanding and required much travel. Platt has since written a book called, “China Boys” which he has given to SAIS and which is a ‘how to’ narrative for those interested in the Foreign Service and how enthusiasm and passion and luck can lead to a decent career. Currently, Platt is a consultant. He has a few clients. He goes to China every six months to keep up with ongoing changes. This is his passion. One of his clients is the Philadelphia Orchestra. It is a client that means a lot to both China and the U.S. He also does lectures on China – then and now (often based on his book). He has given this lecture to about 30 different audiences. He is also thinking about writing a new book soon – he has quite a bit in his archives that still needs to be covered. All of this keeps him busy. In terms of advice for current students, he suggests that they first find out what they really like. Then find out whether they are good at it. Both of these are important and he feels that graduate school can be a great place to investigate these questions. As an aside, his wife is a licensed Social Worker and has done work all over the world. She received her graduate degree from Catholic University, during a five year period when they were both living in Washington, D.C. ItemGarfield-Schwartz, Gail - Oral History Interview(Johns Hopkins University, School of Advanced International Studies (SAIS), Office of Development and Alumni Relations, 2010-10-1) Garfield-Schwartz, GailAn economist by education and a public policy expert by vocation, Gail Garfield-Schwartz B56 received her Master of Urban Planning from New York University in 1960 and Ph.D. from Columbia University in development economics in 1971. Career highlights include serving with the New York City Planning Commission, the Academy for Contemporary Problems, the New York State Public Service Commission, the Teleport Communications Group and AT&T where she retired as the Vice President for Public Policy. Gail wrote four books, scores of articles and managed professional success while raising three children; she now resides in New York. Gails truthful reason for going to Bologna was to find a way to be with her Italian boyfriend. While that didnt work out, she was taken with the Italian Communist political environment, which satisfied her left wing politics. Gails main career interest was to go into the Foreign Service, but when she learned from a professor the as soon as a woman was married, that her Foreign Service career would end. She was furious, and decided not to pursue the second year of her degree in Washington, D.C. ItemPost, Eva Haas Meigher - Oral History Interview(Johns Hopkins University, School of Advanced International Studies (SAIS), Office of Development and Alumni Relations, 2010-10-1) Post, Eva Haas MeigherPost-SAIS, Eva Haas Meigher B56, 57 earned a law degree from the University of California Law School at Berkeley (Boalt Hall). Moving back to Washington, DC she served as a lawyer in international matters working with the Justice Dept in the Foreign Commerce section of the Antitrust division. Eventually she transferred to the General Counsels Office of the U.S. Treasury Department and finally devoted her expertise to the World Banks legal department as the Assistant General Counsel, retiring in 1997. Eva lives in Chevy Chase, MD. Eva worked with Jessica Einhorn at the Treasury Department and enjoyed her career at the World Bank. She fully integrated her international SAIS degree into her professional life. ItemPoser, Klaus - Oral History Interview(Johns Hopkins University, School of Advanced International Studies (SAIS), Office of Development and Alumni Relations, 2010-10-1) Poser, KlausKlaus Poser B56 met his wife, who was studying for her medical degree, through a SAIS classmate. (He would never have met her otherwise.) SAIS was key to his interest in an integrated Europe, which was a major policy issue after World War II. Bologna was abnormally frigid the first year. He worked briefly as the head of an Italian snowshoveling crew that winder because the Italian government needed managers who could read and write. As a German student, he thought the discussions about the war were very civil. He said the local Italians were very friendly. ItemDukert, Joe - Oral History Interview(Johns Hopkins University, School of Advanced International Studies (SAIS), Office of Development and Alumni Relations, 2010-10-1) Dukert, JoeJoe Dukert B56, 93, Ph.D.05 is the oldest person to have ever earned a PhD at SAIS. Before matriculating to the M.A. program, he didnt have any interest in economics and actually told that to school administrators after he was accepted. Says his interest in economics is a testament to the quality of the education he received at SAIS. He wrote U.S. Energy Policy for the Department of Energy, as well as the International Energy Outlook. He is an expert in nuclear energy, but is familiar with all forms of energy. No children. His wife, Betty, worked for Meet the Press for 41 years and was executive producer by the time she retired. ItemMcIntyre Parker, Mary Lee Lincoln - Oral History Interview(Johns Hopkins University, School of Advanced International Studies (SAIS), Office of Development and Alumni Relations, 2010-10-1) McIntyre Parker, Mary Lee LincolnMary Lee Lincoln McIntyre Parker, B56, 57 spent her career in public service working with the US Atomic Energy Commission (now the Nuclear Regulatory Commission), later moving to India and Pakistan with her foreign service officer husband and three children. In Pakistan she taught at the American International School in Islamabad. Moving to Beirut, Mary Lee again taught at several universities in political science departments teaching government. In 1983 Mary Lee and her husband were part of the Beirut Embassy bombing where she lost her husband. She later took a position with USAID as a Foreign Service officer spending three years in Bangladesh then returning to the US working in a civil service capacity also with USAID where she retired in 2000. Mary Lee happily married her college sweet heart, John in 2010. They reside in McLean, VA. Mary Lee was thrilled and fascinated to be in Bologna to get her degree from Johns Hopkins. She knew she wanted to be more than just a housewife. At Bologna she thrived on the courses in politics and on the local political environment. And, she was most interested in international development issues that she went on to address while working at USAID. She is thankful for her degree from Johns Hopkins. ItemBauarschi, Emma Bernardon - Oral History Interview(Johns Hopkins University, School of Advanced International Studies (SAIS), Office of Development and Alumni Relations, 2010-10-1) Bauarschi, Emma BernardonEmma Bernardon B'56, '57 had the privilege of being the first female Foreign Service Officer (FSO) in Kampala, Uganda in East Africa. She has a newspaper clipping from the local paper, which wrote a story about her. She met her husband, who was of Lebanese heritage (born in Dar-es-Salaam, Tanganyika, now known as Tanzania, where his family had been settled for three generations), while posted in Uganda. The Foreign Service would not approve her marriage (as was common for women FSOs at the time), so she was forced to resign. She was one of eight women in the first year of the Bologna program. The women all had to find their own housing, while the men had housing provided through the school. She used to go to the movies in Bologna to watch American films dubbed in Italian to practice her language skills. She remembers that her class on European Integration was one of the best. Later, she blended her domestic life in Houston, Texas, with her international background, working with foreign exchange students (including Fulbright Scholars) at the Institute of International Education. She was one of eight women in the first year of the Bologna program. The women all had to find their own housing, while the men had housing provided through the school. She used to go to the movies in Bologna to watch American films dubbed in Italian to practice her language skills. She remembers that her class on European Integration was one of the best. Later, she blended her domestic life in Houston, Texas, with her international background, working with foreign exchange students (including Fulbright Scholars) at the Institute of International Education. ItemSobernheim, Elfi - Oral History Interview(Johns Hopkins University, School of Advanced International Studies (SAIS), Office of Development and Alumni Relations, 2010-10-13) Sobernheim, ElfiElfi Sobernheim 45 came to the U.S. when she was 11 years old (moved from Germany to Binghamton, NY). She was admitted to both Fletcher and SAIS and came to SAIS because she wanted to live in Washington (big city, more culture and the opportunity to go to museums). She remembers being at 1906 Florida Avenue and living on the 3rd and 4th floors of the building (co-ed). Dr. Hanes stayed there for a little while he and his wife got settled. She remembers Professor Holborn he was a valuable scholar, read about economics at a rapid pace, made a lot of friends. She worked for the State Department for a few years and then worked for the Army. She eventually became a language translator (from German to English) and later became a photographer. Retirement came early for Elfi (she retired before age 50), so that she could take care of her father. As a retired SAIS alumna, Elfi has been a member of a number of clubs and associations (several womens groups) and has been an active member of the SAIS alumni association. She considers her most important accomplishment to be having set up a special library for the Army. She enjoys going to libraries even today. Currently, she is part of a knitting group who gets together to knit clothing, helping those in need stay warm in the winter. ItemWhiteman, Greg - Oral History Interview(Johns Hopkins University, School of Advanced International Studies (SAIS), Office of Development and Alumni Relations, 2010-10-14) Whiteman, GregGreg Whiteman 69 had always planned to be in the field of International Studies and appreciated the opportunity to attend SAIS. He received his undergraduate degree from Dartmouth and majored in International Relations. For graduate school, he applied to Tufts, Harvard, Columbia and SAIS. He came to SAIS because the school offered him money (as did Columbia). He chose SAIS mainly because he wanted to live in Washington, D.C. He went straight to SAIS from Dartmouth as that is commonly what people did then, but he also came as a result of the draft (Vietnam War) educational deferment helped him avoid the draft for two years. His first memories of SAIS include being in the new building on Massachusetts Avenue, across from the Brookings Institute. He recalls having trees around it and generally being in the midst of the international community. He also remembers SAIS not having a campus, but rather just being a building. He remembers the whole Dupont area was much rougher than it is today (and recalls the riots of 1968 being just passed 17th Street down the road). He remembers Professor Sonenfeld (he received his degree in Soviet Studies) as well as Professors Liska, Holborn and Tucker. He remembers the oral exam being extremely challenging (but was glad that there was no thesis). He learned German while he was at SAIS (passed his Orals), but does not remember much of it today (he did practice it a bit, though, while he was visiting Switzerland a few years ago). He also remembers that Bill Nitze used to have a big party, one Saturday each year, where all students and faculty got together in his back yard. With regard to his career, he had every intention of going straight into the State Department after SAIS, but ended up doing something completely different. Due to the draft and because the State Department would not admit him from the list for two years (with the exception of a position with the Foreign Reserve in Vietnam), he took a part-time job with the U.S. Postal Service. He originally chose a job with the U.S. Postal Services due to the supreme quality of their training programs (and it was the best offer he had at the time) and though it would be difficult, it would allow him possible deferment. He wrote a long letter to the Selective Service explaining why he thought he would better serve his country by staying in his current job and not joining the infantry in Vietnam. The letter he got back was from General Hershey saying, Over my dead body. As that did not work, he sent the letter to his local draft board who then granted him occupational deferment. Interestingly, many of his friends tried to use the same letter and were not successful. After spending three years with the Postal Service, he decided to stay with them and has made a 30-year career of it in the business and marketing units of the organization (using similar skill sets it all ties to Foreign Policy). He advises current students to keep an open mind and to not create self limits. He encourages them to see all the various options available given their various skill sets. Also, he encourages students to learn how to manage themselves, interpersonally, in a large organization (i.e. understand the expectations). ItemRasmussen, Erik - Oral History Interview(Johns Hopkins University, School of Advanced International Studies (SAIS), Office of Development and Alumni Relations, 2010-10-15) Rasmussen, ErikErik Rasmussen 69 was always interested in International Affairs and majored in History as an undergraduate at the University of Iowa. For graduate school, he applied to the London School of Economics, Fletcher and SAIS. He chose SAIS over Fletcher because of the Washington location and the resources available in the area. He remembers the Canadian Embassy being right down the road at that time. He also went to SAIS to stay one step ahead of his draft board (educational deferment). SAIS offered a good mix of people who had come from various backgrounds (e.g. military, business, etc.). He thought SAIS to be quite difficult, but that it was a great learning experience. He felt privileged for the experience. When he graduated, his focus was International Economics, European Affairs and American Foreign Policy. He fondly recalls the student interaction, the varied backgrounds of the students (he had a friend from Ghana), access to the guest lecturers, the informal times (the lounge in the basement it was where the locker room is now and they used to listen to Walter Cronchite) and the professors (e.g. Frank Isaiah, David Calleo, Sam Brown and Edmond Stilman they were a wide range of experts and interested him in areas to which he had not been exposed). The dean at the time was Dean Wilcox. Robert Osgood also became dean right around that same time both were highly regarded. He took French at SAIS (remembers being in the language lab and taking the Orals) and does still use it. After he graduated, Erik lost his deferment and so he took steps to enlist in the Army Intelligence which was a step up from being drafted in the infantry. He was granted a physical deferment. He was in Baltimore at the time and he had just gotten married (his wife was at the Homewood campus getting an MA in teaching). He did not pass the Foreign Service exam the first time, but knew that he still wanted to stay in the field, so he looked for a job on the hill, working for a Congressman, and ended up working with Lee Hamilton. He kept this job for seven years. At the time, he was interested in energy issues as energy was a hot topic. As such, he went to the Energy Department (at the Congressional Affairs Office) and worked there for several years ago. About six years ago, he moved into the Energy Information Administration and he has been doing outreach work for them ever since (in the realm of International Energy Issues) and very much enjoys it. He is soon approaching retirement and wants time to take classes again, but has no specific agenda. For students, he recommends that they be able to express themselves (though oral and written communication skills) and to network as much as they can. He ended the interview by sharing a memory of being at SAIS during the riots of 1968 and being in the library looking over 14th Street at the time. ItemDworken, Mort - Oral History Interview(Johns Hopkins University, School of Advanced International Studies (SAIS), Office of Development and Alumni Relations, 2010-10-15) Dworken, MortMort Dworken 68 (family name of Lithuanian origin ancestors came through Ellis Island and went to Cleveland, OH) recalls being in junior high school and being very interested in international affairs, something he thinks he got from his parents who were engaged in current events. His father was a Naval Officer and his mom was a driver for the U.S. Army and they both lived in Arlington. Mort was born in 1944 in DC at Columbia Hospital for Women. In his formative years, he saw a lot and did a lot with his family that related to foreign affairs (including extensive travel). He also had high school teachers that were mentors to him who influenced his interest in international affairs (and was part of the model UN). In college (Yale), he began majoring in chemistry, but very quickly changed to a major in political science. After four years at Yale and one summer overseas (with AISEC internship swapping program), he came to SAIS (note: other summers he was a camp counselor in Indiana). He applied to several schools: Fletcher (Tufts), SAIS and Columbia. He was also accepted into the Peace Corps to go to Niger as well as the Foreign Service (he got sworn in but could defer status). Since he wanted to go back to school, though, he chose to attend SAIS (specifically due to its mix of academicians and practitioners). He also wanted to be in Washington, D.C. and to study French through its language program. He has quite a few memories of being at SAIS. At the time, the Nitze Building was almost brand new. His first living space was about a block and a half away, behind the Brookings Institute. At the time, P Street was all row houses. He moved around to several different places between here and Columbia Road (Adams Morgan). In life, Washington was a place he returned to several times. At the time, he remembers the area being a lot more green. He has fond memories of the faculty and appreciated their practical experience and academic orientation. He focused most of his effort in the National Security area, though kept a fondness for West Africa. In the end, most of his attention was on East-West relations (e.g. Soviet Union Warsaw Pact, NATO, the strategic balance overlaid with a lot of interest in Vietnam). Historically, he recalls walking across the 14th Street bridge in 1968 for the demonstration against the Vietnam War and was concerned that the surveillance was filming everyone marching across the bridge. He was certain that his profile picture was going to be singled out and matched against his profile for the Foreign Service and that that would have him dismissed from the Foreign Service. He remembers several of his professors at SAIS some of who were: Robert Tucker, Bill Lures, Robert Osgood, Francis Wilcox and George Liska. After SAIS, he went into the Foreign Service (first assignment in Vietnam and second assignment in Laos). He also did years of work related to Russia and the Cold War, base negotiations in the Asia Pacific and in the Indian Ocean area (related to Diego Garcia) and did several jobs here in the U.S. related to military and economic assistance. He also worked for the Under Secretary of Financial Security Affairs on arms control and export control. After he retired from the Foreign Service in 2003, he thought he would find part-time work with an interest group (related to his FP work), but he also heard about a job in Tampa, FL with the U.S. military and took that job. He remarks on the fact that SAIS today has grown in size, it has new faculty, new buildings, more students, greater internationalization (with the addition of the Nanjing Center and prior to that Bologna). He still thinks that SAIS is uniquely positioned as a judicious mix of practitioner and academic grounding, and he is pleased to know that it has kept its salience in the Washington, D.C. area there is a great deal on which SAIS has its name and he is pleased to be associated with it. He says that there are more foreign students here today and that this is all for the good. In terms of advice for current SAIS students, he recommends having an openness to assignments that dont necessarily match exactly what one is planning to do (either in content or location).