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Item10 Years of Cap and Trade: A Comprehensive Review of the Regional Greenhouse Gas Initiative(2018-04) Rich, Adam L.The Regional Greenhouse Gas Initiative was the first greenhouse gas-focused cap-and-trade program in the United States. Encompassing nine states in the northeast region of the country, the program covers carbon dioxide emissions from large-scale fossil-based electric power generators. Over the course of the last decade, the Initiative has helped make substantial progress in reducing emissions and changing the generation portfolio in the region, as seen in data from governments, independent system operators, and RGGI itself. It has helped to encourage the reduction of coal and petroleum as sources of electric generation, while encouraging the adoption of renewable generation, and collectively reducing emissions among RGGI states by over 22%, far exceeding the rest of the nation. While RGGI has been a major factor in emissions reduction and the shifts in the region’s generation portfolio, it is not likely the only reason. Other factors, including the cost of energy, Renewable Portfolio Standards, and the potential for emissions leakage, all have had an impact on sources of electric generation and emissions reduction. Ultimately, the Initiative has been successful in its goal of reducing greenhouse gas emissions and improving the region’s generation portfolio. While not without its drawbacks, including the overallocation of carbon allowances, and the potential for leakage, the program does have the potential for long-term improvement by expanding sector coverage and eliminating sources of leakage. ItemAdaptive Renewables: Energy at the Mitigation-Adaptation Nexus(2020-12) Holzknecht, SaraAs the clean energy transition accelerates, the challenges of climate impacts are being seen worldwide. Because energy is a leading source of carbon emissions, renewable power production offers a tremendous opportunity for climate mitigation. This paper examines the potential for advancing renewables deployment concurrently with climate adaptation, thereby achieving co-benefits at the nexus of mitigation and adaptation. A literature review is conducted; the feasibility for coastal protection from storms via offshore wind farms, wave erosion via floating breakwater, and multi-use planning within the blue energy space are explored. Additionally, opportunities to reduce the urban heat island effect and land use competition with solar panels are examined. Finally, various configurations of renewable hybrid energy generation are assessed, as well as implications for grid architecture, transmission planning, and equity within the field. ItemAnalysis and Comparison of the Scope, Impacts, and Responses to the COVID-19 Pandemic and Climate Change as Major Crises in the United States(2020-12) Mahon, Brian C.The COVID-19 pandemic has become the global crisis of 2020 and the focal point of much public attention. Climate change is the ongoing crisis of the industrial and post-industrial ages. The United States and the rest of the world are attempting to navigate both crises. This study researched and analyzed the COVID-19 pandemic and climate change as the major crises affecting the United States of America in terms of the scope of both crises, their impacts, and national responses. This project draws on the knowledge learned throughout the Energy Policy and Climate Change program such as the principles of climate change, its effects, and challenges with regards to implementing effective adaptation and mitigation measures. To the best of this researcher’s knowledge, this project is the first attempt to analyze both COVID-19 and climate change as contemporaneous crises occurring within the United States. As the pandemic continues to evolve, every passing month has offered new information relevant to this project, highlighting both this project’s novelty and the dynamism of the crisis. The research needed to complete this project drew initially from over two-hundred resources, from the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change Assessment Reports to newspaper articles. Additionally, it forced “deep-dives” into the impacts of climate change, challenging preconceived notions, and brought to light the reality that the people most likely to suffer from one crisis are most likely to suffer both. Looking beyond this project, a next step beyond comparing and contrasting will be to splice the two crises to learn their independent effects and how overlapping impacts interact with each other. This would allow a cumulative analysis of the impacts on shared, vulnerable demographics in order to understand how crises in the U.S. continue the oppression of certain demographics of American society. This project should be considered a first step toward better understanding COVID-19, climate change, and the way in which crises are processed in 21st century American society. ItemANALYSIS AND RECOMMENDATION OF POLICIES TO SUPPORT THE ENERGY TRANSITION OF WEST TEXAS ENERGY COMMUNITIES(2023-05) Anderson, MeaghanDeclarations of emission reduction goals have left an uncertain future for oil and gas markets. During a transition to increased use of clean energy resources, areas known as energy communities which economically depend on the success of the fossil fuel industry may experience more negative impacts than other areas of the nation. This includes the Permian Basin of West Texas, one of the largest areas of oil and natural gas production in the United States. The following analysis investigates policy solutions which could provide support for the communities in this area and avoid such trends as those seen in coal energy communities which have experienced economic hardship due to a changing energy landscape. For the investigation, review of past policy efforts as well as qualitative data analysis is used to determine a set of policy criteria and two policy alternatives to investigate. The first policy suggests the development of new education and retraining programs through community colleges and vocational schools. A second policy alternative considers support for emerging and developing industries of the area, including wind, solar, geothermal, hydrogen, and aerospace. After contrasting both cases against a “business-as-usual” control scenario, the first policy alternative was determined to be a more likely candidate for success in the area, but certain elements of a policy to develop industry outside the oil and gas energy sector may also be appropriate for policy makers to consider. ItemANALYSIS OF DECARBONIZATION PATHS TO ACHIEVING NET ZERO AND BEYOND IN CHESTERFIELD COUNTY SCHOOLS(2022-12) Wild, Matthew CharlesGreenhouse gas emissions are a major contributor to climate change and it is important for organizations such as schools to understand and manage their own emissions. A greenhouse gas emissions inventory is a systematic approach to measuring the amount of greenhouse gases an organization produces. This thesis presents the results of a three scope greenhouse gas emissions inventory of a school, including an analysis of the sources of emissions and their relative contributions. The inventory includes emissions from fuel burned for heat and transportation, local emissions from electricity demand, as well as downstream emissions from waste and recycling. Based on the results of the inventory, several initiatives were identified to reduce emissions at the school. These included energy efficiency improvements, such as weatherization and electrified heating systems, electrifying buses, as well as installing rooftop PV, and finally waste reduction efforts focused on increasing recycling. The theoretical implementation of these initiatives was found to be successful in reducing the school’s greenhouse gas emissions. Renewable energy credits were required to fully bring emissions down to and even below net zero. An analysis of the emissions reductions and costs associated with each initiative was also presented. Overall, this thesis demonstrates the importance of conducting a greenhouse gas emissions inventory and implementing emission reduction initiatives in schools. It also provides a framework that can be used by other schools to assess and reduce their own greenhouse gas emissions. ItemAnalysis of Solar Power as Single Source of Electricity for Middle East and North Africa Countries(2018-04) Millan-Sanchez, ManuelThe power sector is living a revolution. The cost of clean technologies is declining faster than expected and deployment targets are being achieved with relative easiness. However, as of today, to think of an entire renewable power sector still seems a utopic objective because of two main factors: variability of renewable resources and cost competitiveness with conventional sources. A lot has been written about the future of solar technologies. Different paces of cost decline of solar photovoltaics (PV) and concentrating solar power (CSP) in the recent times creates uncertainty about the predominance of one or the other. Additionally, while PV is much cheaper nowadays, CSP can provide dispatchable electricity which is highly valued in order to instantaneously balance demand and supply. Battery systems (BESS) to be integrated with PV may seem offer a feasible alternative, but the costs of batteries are still high. Different entities are trying to forecast the cost evolution for these technologies but there is still no consensus about a long-term predominance of any of these technologies for providing 24-hour solar-based generation. The present study intends to analyze the possibility of supplying an entire national system with solar energy only, comparing the different possible alternatives face to face. The analysis uses the two mentioned solar technologies: PV and CSP for providing electricity 24/7 in fifteen different countries. The selected geographic area for the study is the MENA region, which counts with excellent solar resources and developed power systems. The study simulates an economic dispatching of solar generation technologies, optimizing the total cost of generation for one year in different cost scenarios (2017, 2025 and 2030) using the existing future cost projections for both technologies. This analysis assumes that the only available technologies for supply the whole demand in the countries are these two solar technologies, ignoring hypothetically, the actual existence of other technologies. It intends to shed some light about how two solar technologies—namely solar photovoltaics with battery systems and concentrated solar power—can coexist in a power system and how we can compare the techno-economic performance of both on a level playing field The analysis is based on a linear programming model that minimizes the annual cost of electricity generation following the load profile and radiation in each country. A common base of 100 MW peak demand has been adopted for the sake of simplicity and comparability. The main findings of the study show that: - Solar technologies only (with storage) can be a feasible alternative for providing power to an entire system. However, solar technologies are still far from being a competitive option when compared with conventional sources, although, if costs evolution is as expected, it might be in line with them by 2030. Moreover, in countries where baseload is based on oil fired plants solar baseload might be already competitive. - Assuming the expected forecasts for the technologies cost evolution, cost is not the only and/or main driver. The availability of their respective solar resource (DNI and GHI) will still be a critical factor for optimizing the generation mix. This critical role of solar resource will be accentuated as technologies costs decrease. - Finally, solar technologies are complementary in almost all scenarios. Whatever is the cost evolution both technologies are always present and none of them is completely discarded. In terms of storage technologies, the study shows that thermal storage associated with CSP is heavily predominant over BESS. ItemAN ANALYSIS OF THE BARRIERS TO DEPLOYMENT AND SUPPORTIVE POLICIES FOR THE COMMERCIALIZATION OF HYDROGEN ENERGY(2021-12) Krause, TaylorHydrogen technology was created in the 1830s and is considered a versatile and mature technology, but it has not scaled to achieve the commercial hydrogen economy many supporters of the industry envisioned. Recently, hydrogen technology garnered billions of dollars in financial investment from the federal government and private industry to catalyze its commercialization. The current Biden Administration announced ambitious goals to decarbonize the United States economy and made investments in clean hydrogen to partake in accomplishing these goals. The United States Congress also made major investments in the development of clean hydrogen via provisions passed and pending passage seen in P.L.117-58 - Infrastructure Investment and Jobs Act (IIJA) and H.R. 5376 - Build Back Better Act (BBBA). These federal investments are reviewed and further examined in this paper. Although hydrogen has the potential to become a consequential clean energy resource and important decarbonization tool, it is currently primarily produced from fossil fuels. This raises legitimate concerns over its true potential to meaningfully serve as a low-carbon alternative and address the climate crisis. Therefore, due to hydrogen’s maturity as a technology and carbon intensive production portfolio, this paper identifies the barriers to deployment for scaling clean hydrogen while highlighting the potential climate impacts. Current and anticipated federal resources, as well as policy recommendations to overcome the enumerated barriers will be made. Emerging technologies do not exist in a vacuum and are influenced by political climates, societal events, and economic activity, which is a key theme of the curriculum for the Masters of Science Energy Policy and Climate program at Johns Hopkins University. This paper is informed by the scientific, technical, and policy knowledge and research skills gained from this masters program as well as from my Bachelors of Science Chemistry from Chapman University. Additionally, my professional experience in government affairs, climate advocacy, and clean energy policy development was utilized to guide the robust resource selection and analysis for this paper. This paper’s findings are meant to be continually built upon and add to the body of knowledge policy-makers can utilize regarding the commercialization of hydrogen energy. ItemAnalyzing Solar Photovoltaic Farm Suitability for Properties in North Carolina & South Carolina(2019-05) Durham, BrianAs we witness the impacts of the climate crisis continue to become more severe, it is essential for the public and private sectors of the United States to begin rapidly transitioning to clean energy sources to meet its commitments of the Paris Climate Accord (“USA | Climate Action Tracker,” 2019). This study uses Multi-Criteria Decision Making (MCDM) with the Analytical Hierarchy Process (AHP) and Geographic Information Systems (GIS) to locate land and property owners within North and South Carolina most suitable for solar photovoltaic (PV) farm development. A geoprocessing model was built using ESRI’s ArcGIS software to assign levels of importance to various GIS layers of the natural and built environment. The model successfully identifies existing solar PV farms as ideal sites for development while locating thousands of additional acres suitable for solar PV farm development throughout both states. This suitability dataset should help solar development teams works more efficiently. Ideally, more efficient solar development teams will be able to complete more projects, leading to more clean energy on the grid and a faster reduction of our greenhouse gas emissions. ItemAnalyzing the Effects of COVID-19 in Fairfax County Parks and on Climate Change Communication(2020-12) De Naples Sando, GinaIn 2019, a zoonotic disease jumped from animals to human and spread rapidly through respiratory droplets. It came to be known as COVID-19. The pandemic led to closures of universities, movie theaters, fitness centers, and many other facilities. Prominently, among those closures were parks and public lands. Upon observing spikes in park visitation in Fairfax County following a phased reopening, this study aims to find whether the spikes are part of annual trends by analyzing internal data collected from the county and sending out a survey to the general Northern Virginia community. The county data was analyzed quantitatively using tables and charts to show visual trends. The community survey was analyzed using a statistics software that showed variances, generated histograms and displayed normal curves. The results indicated that attendance at outdoor facilities had increased in 2020 compared to previous years, but that certain activities had declined, possibly due in part to government-imposed restrictions and general public anxiety. However, indoor facilities showed a marked decline compared to previous years. People’s concerns about fighting climate change had somewhat increased since the beginning of the pandemic, and about a quarter of the respondents stated that they observed similarities between the COVID-19 pandemic and the climate change crisis. ItemAnalyzing the Potential for Interstate Collaboration to Catalyze the Offshore Wind Industry in the U.S. Southeast(2020-05) Matthews, Michael R.The U.S. Southeastern states of Virginia, North Carolina, and South Carolina possess the resource potential, port infrastructure, and interest from developers necessary to become a hotbed for offshore wind development activity moving forward. Despite this potential however, many key challenge areas exist that would either hinder or prevent the full development of a sustainable industry in the region. This Capstone project has utilized interviews of industry experts to both identify these key challenge areas as well as discuss the efficacy of interstate collaborative models as a solution to overcoming these challenges. Reviews of existing literature were also used to ground-truth information provided by sources. This project has found that while the three states host vastly different offshore wind development landscapes, prevailing key challenges exist in communication and outreach around offshore wind developments in the region, managing conflicting uses, and identification of collective needs and assets in the regional supply chain. Research has also found that an informal, regulatory model of interstate collaboration similar to the former Governors’ South Atlantic Alliance is better suited to address these challenges over a more formal public authority model such as a power authority. ItemANALYZING THE POTENTIAL TO COMBINE ENERGY GENERATING TECHNOLOGIES WITH STRENGTH TRAINING EXERCISE MACHINES(2022-05) Rodriguez, BryanOur energy intensive lifestyle is damaging to ourselves and the environment. The developed world has established an intricate energy sector that is dependent on fossil fuels which relentlessly releases greenhouse gases into the atmosphere leading to climate altering impacts and environmental degradation. Americans, in particular, have used this development to become more sedentary and ultimately unhealthier. This research project is aimed at realizing the potential to electrify the fitness industry by examining the potential to make strength training exercise machines a distributed energy source. In this project, three designs were analyzed to understand their unique drivetrain components and how they operate. These designs include the SportsArt ECO-POWR G575R Recumbent Cycle, the NordicTrack Fusion CST, and Tonal. The research uncovered that there is a shift away from traditional, real weights to the use of magnetic resistance to provide the resistive force for cardio and strength training exercise machines. Interestingly, the magnetic resistance component allows for the designs to harness some of the mechanical energy from the user’s workout and convert it to usable electricity; however, the electricity produced from this process was usually wasted as heat which raises the prospect of improving the design to capture that electricity. This research project found there was an adequate amount of potential to alter the designs of strength training machines to be net suppliers of electricity which could result in not only contributing to a healthier population, but this could also promote a more sustainable lifestyle. ItemASSESSING STATE POLICIES FOR UTILITY-SCALE SOLAR SITING IN MARYLAND, TEXAS AND FLORIDA THROUGH AN ENERGY JUSTICE LENS: A COMPARATIVE CASE STUDY(2021-12) Newport, OliviaWith the current increased focus on greenhouse gas emissions reductions and recognizing and responding to past inequities, understanding ways to improve existing regulatory frameworks and guidance to be more inclusive becomes increasingly important. This capstone project aims to understand the state of existing utility-scale solar deployment in the U.S., considerations when choosing a specific site for a utility-scale solar installation, and factors that drive public opposition and acceptance of renewable energy installations in their communities through an intensive literature review. Then, a qualitative, case study comparison was conducted of the statutes, regulations and guidance related to utility-scale solar siting in Maryland, Florida, and Texas at the state level. The comparison characterizes the procedural energy justice aspects of each state’s processes and differences, through criteria related to public and local government opportunities for participation and transparent guidance. Potential strategies to provide opportunities for more meaningful public and local government input, with the aim to increase community acceptance, were then identified. Each state has different regulatory characteristics and level of state involvement in the utility-scale solar siting process that impacted the ability of the public and local governments to be involved in the decision-making process. The study concludes with potential technical solutions to increase public acceptance of planned utility-scale solar, including integrated vegetation management and agrivoltaics. ItemASSESSING SUSTAINABILITY FOR PACKAGING: ENVIRONMENTAL CHALLENGES AND RESPONSIBILITIES OF PACKAGING DESIGN(2022-05) Leggett, KevinPackaging is a unique industry and often not top of mind to everyday people. However, it plays an important role influencing consumers with every purchasing decision in addition to having major impacts on the environment and climate change. In this study the use of assessment tools was examined to identify environmental impacts of packaging and how sustainable packaging design provided solutions to those impacts. Several research questions were identified and addressed regarding media influence, specific environmental impact indicators, existing assessment tools such as life cycle assessments, and a policy evaluation for producer responsibility. An extensive literature review was conducted regarding the four research topics to provide findings on flexible packaging, one of more visible packaging types to everyday consumers that represent environmental challenges. A fifteen-question online survey was sent to twenty experts in the packaging field to gain their insights on the four major topics. The results of the survey and analysis were compared to the literature review findings to answer the overall research question. Media influence does occur amongst consumers as well as the expert decision makers on the issue of packaging impacts especially regarding recyclability. Assessment tools for packaging were effective at addressing the harmful environmental and climate impacts of packaging. These tools helped to highlight sustainable packaging development and design solutions, in addition to better communicate these findings to the public. Finally, the responsibility of packaging impacts was debated, however Extended Producer Responsibility programs were implemented in several states in the US where the success of that tactic is not yet determined. Addressing these research problems on packaging will help consumers understand a piece of the environmental equation that affects their everyday lives that is not communicated fully enough to the public. ItemASSESSING THE ENERGY IMPACT OF PANDEMIC-RELATED VENTILATION UPGRADES ON WASHINGTON, D.C.-AREA COMMERCIAL BUILDINGS(2022-03) Ost, RobertThe COVID-19 pandemic revolutionized our relationship with indoor spaces. The respiratory nature of the SARS-CoV-2 virus transmission resulted in greater emphasis on adequate ventilation and air purification as effective methods of preventing the spread of disease indoors. Due to the novelty of this virus, epidemiologists have meticulously studied the most effective strategies for buildings. However, given the consensus on the substantial correlation between ventilation and energy performance, the proposed ventilation and filtration upgrades come at the expense of building energy efficiency, with potentially detrimental impacts to the goals of mitigating climate change. This study surveyed numerous high-performing commercial office buildings in the Washington, D.C. metropolitan area to determine the most common upgrades to building ventilation implemented in response to the pandemic. Notable responses with direct influences on energy consumption included enhanced filtration (MERV 13-15) and frequent building flush-outs. Energy models calculated the energy use associated with the observed operational changes, reinforcing the established correlation between enhanced ventilation practices and energy consumption by showing that ventilation systems with upgraded filtration measures and more frequent air changes consumed more energy overall. Therefore, the COVID-19 pandemic has had a quantifiable impact on building energy performance and carbon emissions from an operational perspective, necessitating additional energy-saving measures to keep buildings on track with efficiency goals. ItemAssessment of the Development of an Offshore Wind Energy Project in the Archipelago of San Andres, Providencia and Santa Catalina from a Cost-Efficiency Perspective(2020-12) Murcia Guerrero, Juan FelipeThis report could have not been done without the knowledge gathered during the master’s degree in Energy Policy and Climate. In particular, this work leverages the knowledge gathered on courses related to wind energy policy, science and technology. First, wind energy policy is key for proper offshore energy management. It sets the foundations needed for the development of offshore wind energy projects and is also a key determinant to the success of this type of technology. It also determines the “game rules” that need to be followed to engage all the stakeholders and ensure a positive environmental and social outcome of a project. Second, it is important to understand the science behind this technology to understand the key influencing variables for an offshore wind turbine's efficient functioning. In this sense, bathymetry and wind speed are the key variables that need to be taken into account for the proper deployment of the offshore wind technology. On one hand, bathymetry has a direct impact on the installation costs of the offshore wind project as the cost will increase as the depth increases. And on the other hand, wind speed determines the commercial feasibility of a project. And third, the characteristics of wind turbines and the current state of this technology is important to understand as it also impacts the cost-efficiency of a project. In this sense, a more efficient and larger wind turbine may represent efficiency gains in terms of cost reductions and increased electricity generation compared to a smaller and less efficient one. To analyze the effect of the technology on the cost-efficiency of a project, it is crucial to understand the policy and science aspects associated to offshore wind energy. ItemBLOCKING THE ROAD: CHALLENGES TO CALIFORNIA AND WASHINGTON’S CLEAN ENERGY GOALS(2022-12) Champagne, MarcMy Capstone project is focused on the policy, technology and science embedded within California and Washington’s climate change legislation to achieve a certain percentage of emissions reductions by a specified future point in time as well as both states’ goal to become net-zero by 2045. My classwork and professional experiences have provided me with a strong foundation in understanding climate change from a scientific standpoint and the emerging technologies and supportive legislation that can help mitigate and potentially reverse climate change in the future. Technical knowledge of technologies like green hydrogen, carbon capture and sequestration along with more mature technologies like wind and solar are incredibly important while evaluating policy objectives for state clean energy plans and targets. Diving further into my professional experience, I have been able to observe and analyze the economics of certain clean energy technologies based on both market forces and policy intervention. Both mature and emerging clean energy technologies will continue to play a crucial role to grid reliability, affordability and provide opportunity to meet future energy demand growth. Although it may sound like a simple concept to adopt renewables and say goodbye to all fossil fuels to serve our future energy needs, it is indeed much more comprehensive and complex than that. That is where my classwork and professional experience allow me to study and evaluate the complexities that lie beneath the surface with reliability issues from extreme weather, affordability given generation, transmission, and distribution cost dynamics as well as capital costs of one type of energy project compared to another. California and Washington’s clean energy goals are arguably the most ambitious in the country which brings about its own set of challenges as both states are looking to leverage multiple ways to reduce each state’s emissions footprint while also keeping citizens safe and delivering affordable electricity. I have the knowledge and expertise to investigate integrated resource planning documents that utilities have prepared for local state commissions to determine how and when each state will look to ramp up its transition to cleaner energy. The key objective in this analysis is to determine the feasibility of California and Washington’s clean energy timelines with the methods and technologies the state’s plan to incorporate to achieve these goals, and most importantly the challenges and roadblocks they may face in the process. ItemBrief for Policymakers: An Evaluation of Fuel Cell Electric Vehicles & How They Compare to Battery Electric Vehicles(2022-05) Hutchinson, Nicole- Widespread deployment and adoption of Zero-Emission Vehicles (ZEV) is necessary to achieve California’s climate and electrification goals. - Given limited public funds, the question has been raised by policymakers whether public incentive funding should be prioritized and focused toward ZEV technologies that show the most promise. - Specifically, whether the State should focus light-duty investments on Battery Electric Vehicles (BEV), which have performed better in the California market to date, over Fuel Cell Electric Vehicles (FCEV) ItemBUILDING EFFICIENCY AND BUILDING SUSTAINABILITY RECOMMENDATIONS FOR THE NATURAL SCIENCE BUILDING AT SUNY COLLEGE AT OLD WESTBURY: A CASE STUDY ACROSS SUNY CAMPUSES(2021-12) Rodgers, NikkiPlans for the renovation of the Natural Science Building at SUNY College at Old Westbury, have been around for close to a decade but only recently will contract bidding for the actual renovation begin Spring 2022. The building is in a state of disrepair, and as we progress in an era of climate mitigation and adaptation, the renovation will also serve as a project to increase building efficiency and sustainability to match goals set in place by SUNY and New York State. This paper aims to recommend building efficiency and building sustainability options for the Natural Science Building through studying all 64 SUNY owned campuses. For that, this paper first proceeded by developing a background review of current global, state, and state-owned education goals of building efficiency and sustainability, followed by discussing current campus efforts. Second, tabulated data of all 64 owned SUNY campuses were collected with information specifically about building efficiency and sustainability. Third, data was analyzed graphically and reported within the results section. Then, recommendations were created based on trending data and concerns well known within the campus community. Lastly, a conclusion written with final thoughts. Results showed that most campus’ used LEED for standards or certification and that solar power was the most used renewable resource on/off campus. Furthermore, for every LEED Silver and Gold on a campus building, half were certification from a campus’ science building. Among all LEED Platinum buildings, science buildings accounted for 3 out of the 4 listings. We conclude by recommending that the Natural Science Building be built to LEED Gold standards, with a push for geothermal, while addressing the top concerns agreed on by staff and faculty for building efficiency and sustainability. ItemBuilding Logistics in Urban Areas; Innovations and Solutions to Decrease GHG Emissions(2022-05) de Boer, DirkConstruction logistics in urban areas are negatively impacting the livability in city centers. Inefficient logistics are impacting the environment, causing congestion and increasing traffic accidents. Construction workers, municipalities, and construction material suppliers should work closely to modernize the construction logistic industry. This can be achieved by innovative government policies, modernizing the transportation fleet, and the consolidation of construction materials for last-mile deliveries. A condition for successful improvements is that construction workers need to change the methods of approaching renovation construction projects. The conservative behavior of construction workers will be the biggest challenge for modernizing construction logistics. ItemCan Climate Change Increase the Likelihood of State Fragility?(2018-04) Huang, JameIt was concluded that climate change can influence the fragility of a country. The existing academic literature has found that it can be as nuanced as the displacement of people due to drought, flooding, storms, forest fires, and other natural and human-related forces. These scenarios can lead to a large influx of climate refugees into foreign regions that under some circumstances may result in localized conflicts due to competition for resources and/or cultural and ethnic differences. A rapid and persistent change in environmental conditions such as caused by drought has direct consequences for those that rely on the natural resources. A sudden and persistent change in the natural environment can be analogous to how other species may need to migrate in order to survive. Mankind is no exception here, specifically those that are dependent on arable land for farming and have no other means of income or food security. A mass migration can have potentially destabilizing effects on nearby countries and the world due to the interconnectedness of globalization. The case of Syria’s civil war is the most prominent case of how climate change contributed to the violent conflict. A powerful drought outside of natural variability and linked to anthropogenic climate change forced Syrian farmers to abandon their lands and into the outskirts of urban cities in pursuit of work. A strain on resources due to unsustainable water policies also resulted in a classic case of environmental scarcity which further exacerbated the drought crisis. During this time, the Arab Spring protests encouraged revolutionary tendencies in neighboring countries and as a result, also spread to Syria. The displaced farmers added fuel to the unrest in Syria. The underlying themes associated with conflict and unrest, such as mass migration and resource scarcity, are indirectly applied to conclude that a changing climate has the potential to disrupt a stable country and have cascading destabilizing effects internally and to neighboring countries. Statistically significant findings also suggest that there is a high correlation between temperature anomalies and the fragility of a country. However, there is no simple link between climate events and instability. Countries with a relatively poor governance structure are most susceptible to exogenous natural forces due to their assumed low adaptive capacity to deal with natural disasters and/or mitigate their impacts. The correlation of the year to year variations between temperature and the number of displaced persons, which is a driver of state fragility, are weak. But the upward trends of the number of globally displaced persons and temperature are strongly correlated.