ItemDeployment, Managed Charging, and Equity: How can U.S. distribution utilities support and enable equitable electrification of transportation?(2023-05) Josh CohenThis study examines the critically important ways in which electric distribution utilities can support and enable the U.S. transition to full electrification of the transportation sector in an equitable manner. It evaluates the state of the market, reviews characteristics of charging behavior for different use cases and applications, and identifies what roles electric distribution utilities can, and should, play. The study finds that utilities have key roles in two broad respects: deployment and energy management. Without utility involvement in deployment of charging infrastructure, the electrification of transportation likely be inadequate to meet policy targets, and without utility involvement in managing the load, the electrification of transportation will require costly grid upgrades that will undermine the value proposition of electrification. Additionally, a cross-cutting theme applicable to both of these roles has to do with equity – ensuring that all demographics have access to – and can benefit from – transportation electrification. ItemDecarbonization Strategy Evaluation at Pertamina(2022-05-13) Abidin, ZainalAs a state-owned energy company, Pertamina has an obligation to secure the nation’s energy independence while at the same time supporting Indonesia’s Net Zero Emission (NZE) Target by 2060 or sooner. To achieve this goal, Pertamina has crafted the Decarbonization of Business Activities and New Business Building roadmap. Since the NZE roadmap is designed using the top-down approach to comply with the national NZE target in 2060, the decarbonization strategy has yet to be prioritized and evaluated in detail whether it will contribute effectively to the target. The researcher developed six main steps as the methodology, mainly used to analyze the strategy from various points of view in answering the research problem. First, mapping and classifying unique emission reduction efforts from each business unit into defined strategic initiatives were conducted. Furthermore, to see the priority initiatives in each business unit, every projected emission initiative was calculated in percentage relative to the total emission reduction projection. Moreover, the researcher calculated overall emission reduction contribution to see which type of activity and business unit has the biggest contribution to company-wide. To see and analyze how much the emission reduction target by the program can cover the emission reduction target by the NZE roadmap, the researcher plotted the emission reduction trend for the upstream business unit in the short and medium term. In addition, the researcher plotted the emission intensity target in the Business As Usual (BAU) scenario and NZE Roadmap Target Scenario. Finally, the researcher used plotted emission intensity targets to benchmark various world’s significant oil and gas producers and Oil and Gas Climate Initiative (OGCI). As a result, the researcher found that energy efficiency initiatives will be the backbone of decarbonization activities during the short and mid-term periods, followed by loss reduction and green power generation initiatives. However, in the upstream business unit, which was projected to be the biggest contributor, the declared initiatives have only accounted for about 58% of the emission reduction target. Thus, Pertamina should reevaluate its short and mid-term strategies. Otherwise, the accomplishment of the NZE target will be jeopardized. ItemA COMPARISON OF NUTRIENT CONCENTRATIONS IN WETLANDS ACROSS LONG ISLAND, NEW YORK TO POPULATION DEMOGRAPHICS AND GEOGRAPHICAL CHARACTERISTICS(2023-05) Lesser, LawrenceWhile nitrates and phosphates are essential nutrients required for photosynthesis in aquatic ecosystems, excess levels can cause a chain reaction of ecological damage through a process called eutrophication. Eutrophication occurs gradually in a natural setting, but is accelerated due to human waste, excess fertilizer use, and other anthropogenic sources. In eutrophied waters, excess nitrates and phosphates cause algal blooms on the water’s surface, blocking light from reaching plants and animals underneath and eventually leading to the loss of dissolved oxygen and the potential death of aquatic organisms relying on that dissolved oxygen. These algal blooms, along with nitrate pollution itself, can be detrimental to human health and the local economy. This study sought out to measure nitrate and phosphate concentrations in wetlands across Long Island, New York, and compare these values to population density, income levels and other economic demographics, geographical characteristics, and the presence or absence of sewer systems. In regression analyses with population demographics, it was found that there is no relationship between nutrient concentrations and population density, along with no relationship between nutrient concentrations and economic factors. With the use of two-sampled t-tests, it was found that significantly higher nitrate concentrations were found in areas not covered by sewer systems as opposed to areas that were with 99% confidence, along with the same for phosphate concentrations with 90% confidence. It was also found that significantly higher phosphate concentrations were found in Suffolk County, which has less sewer system coverage than its counterpart, Nassau County. Finally, significantly higher phosphate concentrations were found on the south shore of the island as opposed to the north shore, which can be attributed to Long Island’s glacial origin. ItemAN EMPIRICAL ASSESSMENT OF THE FINANCIAL PERFORMANCE OF UTILITY-SCALE BATTERIES AS PEAK GENERATORS(2023-05) Kim, Marcus KwangjinAs the share of renewable energy continues to rise in the United States and globally, energy storage technologies such as lithium-ion batteries are increasingly being deployed to alleviate some of the issues posed by the intermittency of such resources. Specifically, batteries are able to absorb energy during times of the day when solar or wind resources are plentiful, and inject that energy into the grid when the resources are no longer available and demand for electricity peaks. In this way, batteries can help maximize consumption of clean energy all the while helping maintain the stability and reliability of the electric grid. However, despite recent growth and ongoing interest, lithium-ion batteries still cost more than most other generation technologies, and studies that use empirical data to assess the financial performance of battery projects are sparse, given that most of the deployment really happened in the last 3 years. As such, this analysis develops a financial model that calculates the rates of return on investment for a sample of battery energy storage (BES) and natural gas combustion turbines (NGCT) in order to verify whether batteries are in fact competitive with NGCTs. Unsurprisingly, the study reveals that the investment tax credit (ITC) for standalone energy storage projects provided by the Inflation Reduction Act (IRA) is one of the decisive factors that tilts the balance in favor of battery projects. In other words, although the rates of return for battery projects that are currently in operation are 0.1% to 2.4% lower compared to those of NGCTs, if those same projects were to have been built today, and therefore were eligible to receive the ITC, they would be earning 2.4% to 4.5% more on average than NGCT projects. Data related to project configuration, costs, and revenue are further dissected and analyzed to yield insights about how battery projects operate and earn revenue. ItemANALYSIS AND RECOMMENDATION OF POLICIES TO SUPPORT THE ENERGY TRANSITION OF WEST TEXAS ENERGY COMMUNITIES(2023-05) Anderson, MeaghanDeclarations of emission reduction goals have left an uncertain future for oil and gas markets. During a transition to increased use of clean energy resources, areas known as energy communities which economically depend on the success of the fossil fuel industry may experience more negative impacts than other areas of the nation. This includes the Permian Basin of West Texas, one of the largest areas of oil and natural gas production in the United States. The following analysis investigates policy solutions which could provide support for the communities in this area and avoid such trends as those seen in coal energy communities which have experienced economic hardship due to a changing energy landscape. For the investigation, review of past policy efforts as well as qualitative data analysis is used to determine a set of policy criteria and two policy alternatives to investigate. The first policy suggests the development of new education and retraining programs through community colleges and vocational schools. A second policy alternative considers support for emerging and developing industries of the area, including wind, solar, geothermal, hydrogen, and aerospace. After contrasting both cases against a “business-as-usual” control scenario, the first policy alternative was determined to be a more likely candidate for success in the area, but certain elements of a policy to develop industry outside the oil and gas energy sector may also be appropriate for policy makers to consider. ItemA Review of Efforts to Enhance Coral Reef Resilience in Hawaiʻi and Florida with Emphasis on Coral Restoration Techniques: Implications for Policies to Protect and Restore Coral Reef Ecosystems(2023-05) Malarkey, Molly ElizabethCoral reefs are among one of the planet's most vital ecosystems. Corals take up less than 0.1% of the ocean floor, yet their impact on marine ecology is immeasurable. Coral reefs have been vulnerable to extinction since the 1950s. Climate change, global warming, mass bleaching due to ocean warming events, agricultural runoff, sedimentation, disruptive fishing practices, tourist traffic, and a multitude of other various local stressors all play into the story that global stressors have to tell: that coral reefs are in imminent danger without massive shifts in policy, enforcement, monitoring, and anthropogenic intervention. Aggressive restoration efforts are needed in order to buy coral reefs more time and encourage growth in highly degraded areas where scientists are observing genetically favorable coral species that can withstand warmer, more acidic oceanic environments. We explore how two American research teams identified thermally tolerant coral stocks in Hawai‘i and in the Florida Keys via heat stress testing and engineered resilient corals for outplanting via selective breeding. This unique methodology and approach of coral conservation and restoration speaks volumes to techniques that can be utilized and implemented in current and future research and development efforts. This paper has an emphasis on coral restoration techniques and the specific genotypes that exhibit resilience to increased temperature stress. Scalable coral restoration efforts on a domestic level are analyzed and discussed. Three primary policy recommendations are made: (1) Identifying and addressing local stressors that can be mitigated where possible to make every reasonable effort to do so with the resources available based on geographical location. Such as mitigating the overreliance and poor management of land-based pollutants including agricultural runoff, sedimentation, sewage, cesspools, disruptive fishing practices and tourism traffic. Maintaining the goal of reshaping sustainable travel mentalities and practices while enhancing the education of visitors (2) enhancing research and development efforts to target genetic favorability of thermally tolerant corals and, (3) increasing the visibility of Marine Protected Areas for regions which have been deemed the most viable for reef restoration long-term. Without coral reefs, the marine ecosystem could collapse. Not all corals will survive climate change, but increased knowledge about resilient corals that can be selectively bred and that are known to be warmer temperature-tolerant will buy current survivors more time. Implementing scalable restorative efforts on a domestic level will contribute to the body of literature long-term that can aid in global efforts to restore and protect coral reefs. ItemTHE LIFE CYCLE COST ANALYSIS OF BUILDING DECARBONIZATION: COMPARING AIR-TO-WATER HEAT PUMPS TO GAS-FIRED NATURAL GAS BOILERS FOR HYDRONIC HEATING(2023-05) Schwamborn, FrankThis study examines the life cycle cost of air-to-water heat pump (A2WHP) technology compared to gas-fired systems for a modeled Los Angeles commercial office building. The study creates a building performance mode using Integrated Environmental Solutions Virtual Environment software to estimate annual energy consumption, building operating emissions, and energy cost. Then integrates those results into the National Institute of Standards and Testing Handbook 135 Federal Energy Management Program analysis to estimates the cumulative savings or losses over 25 years with the initial and reoccurring cost of a building. The study’s goal was to determine if any A2WHP system had net present savings. When comparing a Cleaver Brooks condensing boiler with a Trane and Samsung A2WHP, the Samsung system have lower net present savings while the Trane A2WHP have a net loss. Then, after examining the sensitivity of the life cycle cost to different discount rates and energy escalations, the savings with the Samsung system cover the added capital cost compared to the gas-fired equipment. However, the study did not include net costs like installation, controls, and maintenance, which could reduce the overall life cycle savings. Finally, using R410A refrigerant plays a significant role in A2WHP, contributing to more greenhouse gas source emissions when compared to the natural gas equipment examined. ItemCLIMATE CHANGE VULNERABILITY ASSESSMENT OF UNHOUSED POPULATIONS – A PROPOSED INDEX METHODOLOGY(2023-05) Eisenhardt, HarrisThe interactions between climate change and homelessness in the United States are not widely documented or uniformly quantified. Individuals who experience homelessness are not commonly accounted for in community, state, or federal climate change adaptation planning or vulnerability assessment mechanisms. Drawing on established vulnerability assessment frameworks, this review presents a standard approach to evaluate the climate vulnerability of an unhoused population, modeled at U.S. census tract granularity. The methodology presents recommended steps to leverage modeling-, survey-, and evaluation-based indicators to measure exposure, sensitivity, and adaptive capacity to determine vulnerability of an unhoused population to climate impact drivers in scope. Standardization of a vulnerability assessment methodology focused on unhoused populations may facilitate new opportunities for data compilation, enabling assessment practitioners to shed light on urgent vulnerability gaps and prioritize targeted resilience interventions within an unhoused population. ItemRECYCLING LITHIUM-ION BATTERIES: REVIEWING IMPROVEMENTS TO THE PROCESS(2023-05) Masood, JuveriaIncreasing adoption of battery storage, primarily driven by growing electric vehicle use, will increase the demand and production for Lithium-ion Batteries (LIBs). These batteries are inherently reliant on a finite resource pool – specifically for elemental Lithium (Li). There is tremendous effort around understanding how to mitigate uncertainties around the future of the Li supply chain through employing recycling methods like pyrometallurgy and hydrometallurgy after a pre-treatment step or direct recycling to recover or reuse valuable battery material. Though these strategies are broadly cost prohibitive today to a lack of existing battery waste stream, high energy input, high cost, high emissions, and low elemental recovery rates, improving their remaining technical limitations will make them more financially viable and pave the way for a more circular supply chain around LIBs. This review concluded that the most promising research avenues include the optimization of the pre-treatment step, blending of pyrometallurgical and hydrometallurgical strategies, and continuing to investigate electrode regeneration research (among a few others). While these improvements are being realized and the battery waste stream increases in volume, direct recycling methods like reuse for backup power applications should be utilized since they are independent of these existing technical and supply chain limitations. Supportive regulation around standardizing battery design, increasing the battery waste stream, and supporting continued investment in LIB recovery would also benefit the future of the supply chain and pave the way for a secure electrified future. ItemMANUFACTURED CLIMATE VULNERABILITY IN THE CARIBBEAN — THE CASE FOR CLIMATE REPARATIONS(2023-05) Raines, AveryThis research thesis work examines the impact of exploitative fiscal relationships shaped by colonialism and imperialism on contemporary climate vulnerability in the Caribbean. Small island developing states (SIDS) and island nations worldwide face the challenge of responding effectively to the growing climate crisis. The Caribbean SIDS by geography, economy, and historical exploitation are uniquely vulnerable to climate change. This historical exploitation, at the expense of Caribbean SIDS, enabled European Nations and the United States to rapidly industrialize, and has made them the primary producer of the greenhouse gases responsible for climate change. This thesis work explores the role of these relationships in manufacturing climate vulnerabilities in the region. This research of this capstone project aims to answer the question of: how have exploitative fiscal relationships shaped by colonialism and imperialism contributed to and exacerbated contemporary climate vulnerability in the Caribbean? The study conducts a literature analysis to understand the historical political economy and colonial dimensions contributing to the production of climate vulnerability in the Caribbean. Based on this analysis, the thesis argues for reparative climate and economic policies, specifically climate reparations, as potential solutions to these manufactured vulnerabilities. To explore this topic further, interviews are conducted with climate policy and climate reparations experts, and a qualitative analysis is performed in the context of this argument. Ultimately, various proposals for reparative frameworks to address climate change are considered, as are visions for reparative climate actions. While there is some agreement on key instruments for climate reparative policies, initiatives, and efforts, the implementation of reparative climate action will depend on factors such as scale and location. The study highlights a growing momentum within the climate justice and debt justice movements towards adopting a framework of reparative thinking. This approach involves envisioning reparative solutions as a means of addressing climate-related challenges. ItemPORTRAIT IN PINK: HOW ADVANCED REACTORS WILL SHAPE IMPLEMENTATION OF THE 45V CLEAN HYDROGEN TAX CREDIT(2023-05) Bryan, ClaytonAdvanced nuclear reactors and clean hydrogen have an opportunity to scale together and diversify the hydrogen production market away from fossil fuel-based production. The market for clean hydrogen is expected to grow significantly by 2030 and beyond, relying on the deployment of low greenhouse gas (GHG) emission energy sources. However, plugging an electrolyzer into the grid assumes the electricity generation's average and marginal emissions profile, which is often more than producing hydrogen using fossil fuels. Developing clean hydrogen production avenues is critical to making hydrogen available at the projected demand rate. Due to their high capacity factors, nuclear reactors can ensure clean hydrogen production continues when renewable sources are unavailable. The first advanced reactor to be approved is scheduled to go into commercial service in 2029, with other reactor designs following suit. If construction begins before the end of 2032, an advanced reactor could take advantage of the newly passed Section 45V clean hydrogen production tax credit included in the Inflation Reduction Act of 2022 (P.L. 117-169). Conventional nuclear facilities are also participating in hydrogen production through cost-share partnerships and demonstration projects. Clean hydrogen will be critical to a low GHG emissions energy system. According to Department of Energy research, pink and green hydrogen have the lowest emissions profile and will see the steepest decline in production costs. Pink hydrogen, as nuclear-powered electrolysis is known, has the potential to maintain production reliability and resiliency through readily available electricity when compared to green hydrogen, as renewable-powered electrolysis is known, which would require significant energy storage technology developments to overcome intermittency. Pink hydrogen will provide reliability and resiliency for clean hydrogen production and will form a critical piece of the hydrogen economy. Moreover, whether or not advanced reactors are constructed in time to take advantage of the 45V PTC, prices for electrolyzers and other pink hydrogen production costs are expected to decline due to the tax credit, benefitting the entire hydrogen economy and meeting goals for reduced GHG emissions set out by policymakers. Advanced nuclear reactor development is well paired to expand with hydrogen production as demand for both rises. ItemA FINANCIAL MODEL OF ELECTROCHEMICAL CARBON DIOXIDE REMOVAL FROM SEAWATER FOR GEOLOGICAL SEQUESTRATION(2023-05) MacLeod, WilliamTo meet the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change’s goal to limit global temperature rise to 1.5°C by the end of the 21st century, carbon dioxide removal (CDR) appears increasingly necessary to stay within their representative concentration pathways. Commercial CDR technologies available today may not scale to the capacity necessary to fill this role, or may be too costly. One of the major drivers for inefficiency in CDR technologies like Bioenergy with Carbon Capture and Storage and Direct Air Carbon Capture and Storage is carbon dioxide’s (CO2) comparative dilute presence in the atmosphere. In seawater however, CO2 is over 100 times more concentrated by volume, and since CO2 maintains an equilibrium between the atmosphere and the ocean, removing it from seawater has the follow-on effect of removing it from the atmosphere. A technology recently developed by the Naval Research Laboratory to synthesize liquid hydrocarbon fuels at sea, extracts CO2 from seawater using continuous electrodeionization to temporarily acidify it, thereby shifting the carbonate equilibrium to favor CO2 such that it can be degassed. This paper proposes modifying their technology to focus on CO2 extraction for the purpose of geological sequestration, rather than fuel synthesis. It uses pro forma cash flow analyses of annual revenues and expenses to estimate the financial viability of the approach across three scenarios representing low, medium and high economic optimism. The levelized cost of CDR calculated through these scenarios were between $179 and $261 per tonne of carbon dioxide (tCO2), which does not reach the carbon pricing corridor proposed by the Carbon Pricing Leadership Coalition (CPLC) of between $50/tCO2 and $100/tCO2. While this suggests the technology is not yet mature enough to compete as an emissions offset, the availability of the 45Q tax credit does make it financially viable under one scenario. With this subsidy providing a financial runway for the technology to mature, the capital and operating expense rates can come down to a level that would support CDR within the CPLC’s carbon price corridor. ItemTHE COMPLEXITIES IN INEQUITIES: APPLYING CRITICAL ENVIRONMENTAL JUSTICE STUDIES TO URBAN GREEN INFRASTRUCTURE DEVELOPMENT(2023-05) Stevens, DesireeMany cities have turned to urban green infrastructure (UGI) to combat water pollution and urban heat island effect (UHIE). UGI is a multifunctional and serves multiple purposes to residents and the surrounding urban environment. For example, street trees not only provide temperature control for UHIE, but also provide housing for non-human species and as recreation for residents or urban agriculture has a positive effect on decreasing UHIE, but also effectively contributes to food sovereignty. This research aims to critique UGI development in the United States using David Naguib Pellow’s Critical Environmental Justice Studies framework. I will evaluate different UGI features, using his four pillars: intersectionality, multiscalar, the state and indispensability to understand how injustices occur within development. This research was conducted due to the seemingly lack of involvement of racialized people in the planning process. There is a continuous stress of developing more greening across the country, but usually does not account for the impacts it will have on vulnerable communities such as racialized people. ItemStrengthening the North American Nuclear Supply Chain: A Framework for Canada - U.S. Collaboration in the Deployment of New Nuclear(2023-05) Ho, EdIn the nuclear arena, Small Modular Reactors have transitioned from development projects to commercialization with the first consortium formed and contract signed at the end of 2022. As the industry tries to transition from its legacy large infrastructure-type developments to these sleek “New Nuclear” designs, there will be many challenges, not the least of all to grow a supply chain to support this industrialization. As deglobalization, a global pandemic and a war in the Ukraine disrupt supply chains and threaten national security, the challenge is intensified. Strengthening partnerships with existing allies, like the relationship between Canada and the United States, may lead to some obvious solutions. By performing a bottom-up comparative analysis of the nuclear supply chain in Canada and the United States, a framework can be created to identify strengths and weaknesses, as well as opportunities on both sides of the border. An integrated collaborative development plan will maximize efforts going forward to create an effective supply chain for New Nuclear. Some policy suggestions are offered, and evaluation of real opportunities considered in this dynamic development process. ItemWIND-BASED MICROGRIDS: COMPETITIVE VIABILITY AND GRID CONGESTION REDUCTION(2023-05) Cope, MarthaThis paper discusses observed grid congestion costs in the United States, and what contributes to those congestion costs. It then proposes microgrids that rely on wind generation as a method to reduce grid congestion costs by providing electricity that does not rely on the wider grid. The economic viability of wind-based microgrids in two locations representative of areas in the United States with high grid congestion costs were determined using the Homer Pro modeling software. Similar models were developed for equivalent gas turbine sites to provide a point of comparison to a common grid-connected alternative. Based on economic factors including the net present cost and internal rate of return, the wind based microgrid and gas turbine projects at each location were compared. The modeled microgrid results had net present values ranging from $234M to $259M and internal rates of return ranging from 20% to 24%, and the modeled gas turbines had net present values ranging from $433 M to $833 M and internal rates of return ranging from 15.6% to 21.2%. This indicates that, while gas turbines can return a greater profit overall, microgrids that incorporate wind power can return a higher profit proportionally to the capital necessary. Finally, the grid congestion cost reductions that would occur as a result of microgrid projects similar to the modeled sites were estimated. This analysis demonstrated that the modeled microgrid could reduce congestion costs by 3.4%-4.4%, depending on the area in which the site is located. ItemTHE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN ELECTRIC POWER SYSTEM REGULATORY STRUCTURE AND RENEWABLE ENERGY GROWTH IN THE UNITED STATES FROM 2010 TO 2020(2023-05) Hahn, BrittaThe regulatory structure of the electric power system in the U.S. follows two basic models. Historically, vertically integrated public utilities, operating as monopolies, have controlled electricity generation, transmission, and distribution. This regulated structure has been retained by 23 states. The other 27 states have restructured, or deregulated, their electricity market such that Regional Transmission Organizations balance system load and operate bid-based wholesale electricity markets. This restructuring, intended to make price competition central to transmission system access, has opened the market to non-utility generators. The aim of the present study was to determine which of these two systems has been more conducive to renewable energy growth within the last decade. Recent cost declines have made wind and solar power costcompetitive, suggesting that a deregulated market structure may facilitate their growth. Annual wind and solar photovoltaic capacity additions, expressed as a percentage of total capacity addition, were analyzed. Deregulated states displayed greater wind capacity growth between 2010 and 2020 than regulated states. Much of this dominance was explained by a more favorable wind resource quality; however, deregulation had significant additional predictive power. Regulated states, in contrast, displayed significantly greater solar capacity growth, with steep acceleration even prior to solar power becoming broadly cost-competitive. A more favorable solar resource quality explained much of this difference, especially in later years when CapEx had declined. State Renewable Portfolio Standards (RPS) predicted solar capacity growth only among deregulated states, which average more ambitious RPS targets than regulated states. Regulatory status per se accounted for a small additional fraction of between-state variance in solar capacity growth. In summary, deregulation appears to have facilitated wind capacity deployment but may have slowed solar capacity growth. A regulated system may have been more conducive to solar capacity growth early on, when this technology was only marginally cost-competitive. ItemNew York’s Climate Leadership and Community Protection Act Standards for Renewable and Clean Energy: An Evaluation of Policy Implementation(2023-05) Wiley, ChristineNew York is a leader in decarbonization policy. The state passed a landmark policy, the Climate Leadership and Community Protection Act (CLCPA), in 2019. The CLCPA requires that New York achieves 70% renewable energy by 2030 (70x30), and 100% clean energy by 2040 (100x40). These ambitious mandates must be accompanied with thorough implementation strategies to turn words into actions. The Climate Action Council approved the Scoping Plan (Plan) in 2022, which can be considered the state’s policy implementation plan. This paper investigates the mandates for the electric power sector outlined in the Scoping Plan, and offers a seven-part evaluation framework to assess the implementation for meeting the 70x30 and 100x40 mandates. The evaluation reveals that the state has a number of excellent strategies for lowering the barriers to deploy renewable and clean energy technologies, which should be emulated by other states that aim to decarbonize their electric power sectors. However, the Scoping Plan has areas of weakness, and this paper offers guidance and strategies for strengthening these areas. Overall, the evaluation finds that the achievement of the 70x30 mandate appears plausible, while the 100x40 mandate presents a daunting challenge, and there remains notable hurdles to overcome by 2040. ItemIdentifying metrics of greenwashing in the Chinese Green Bond market using quantitative and qualitative company data. Its implication for energy finance.(2023-05) Spezakis, ZinoviaThe following research looks at greenwashing in the Chinese Green Bond market. It tries to examine the extent of it by using parent company qualitative and quantitative information to find a predictive measure. It also looks at the implication of historic and current Green Bond Standards. The primary objective is to identify misleading labels on bond issuances. ItemExtreme Heat Adaptation in Local Government: A Comparative Case Study of New York City and New Orleans(2023-05-02) Regitsky, AlecAs the risk of extreme heat in urban centers is virtually certain to become more frequent and intense in the coming decades, comparing New York City, New York’s and New Orleans, Louisiana’s policy responses to those increasing dangers highlights the standard approach to protecting vulnerable populations, where alterations can be made to best suit local needs, and the numerous areas where solutions may still be implemented. Two cities at the forefront of the climate crisis in the United States, their policy solutions are guided by their history and existing adaptations and behaviors as well as the harsh realities their new climates changes have already wrought. New York City has prioritized cooling centers as a safety measure as the city is regularly seeing hundreds of vulnerable residents die, often in unairconditioned homes; New Orleans has prioritized the installation of back-up energy generation following mass blackouts caused by Hurricane Idea in 2021 and deaths of at least 10 residents in the resulting excessive heat exposure. Comparing both city’s codes, regulations, and policies, reviewing their emergency management communication strategies on social media platforms, and performing GIS analysis on cooling center locations against vulnerability criteria paints a clear picture of where heat policy stands in both cities and where it could potentially expand. ItemENERGY HARVESTING FROM HUMAN MOVEMENT: A CLIMATE CHANGE MITIGATION AND ENERGY SECURITY STRATEGY FOR GÖRLITZ, GERMANY(2022-12) Slaiby, LilyAs a means to contribute to the attainment of the city of Görlitz’s climate neutrality goal, this feasibility study examines the potential implementation of the Pavegen footfall harvesting technology into two of the city’s touristic locations – Brüderstraße and the Old Town Bridge. The two specific research questions which are explored in this analysis investigate the extent to which the establishment of the footfall harvesting technology in Görlitz increases the city’s amount of energy generated and reduces GHG emissions in the urban area. The results of the research indicate that the integration of footfall harvesting in Görlitz increases the city’s amount of energy generated by at least 0.47% of Saxony’s 2017 total electricity generation and reduces the city’s greenhouse gas emissions by at least 22.66% of Saxony’s 2017 total GHG emissions. The analysis of the collected and extrapolated observational data estimates the total cost of the project to equate to about €3,109,650.78, identifies the break-even point of the investment to occur within ten years of the technology’s 20-year lifespan, and evaluates the levelized cost of electricity as €0.11 per kWh. According to the findings provided by both methods used to examine the project’s profitability – the internal rate of return and net present value techniques, this report recommends the city of Görlitz to accept the project. Further, the one-way multivariate analysis of variance statistical test determines that the independent variable ‘traffic’ has an effect on the dependent variables ‘energy generated’ and ‘GHG emissions avoided.’ Numerous funding opportunities are available to the city officials for the undertaking of this project, particularly from the German federal government. Nonetheless, the total long-term benefits outweigh the total short-term costs of implementing the Pavegen tiles in Görlitz. These benefits include increasing the investment in renewable energy projects, reducing the region’s GHG emissions, and ensuring energy security in addition to the intangible benefits of raising community awareness of the importance of the renewable energy transition in mitigating climate change.