Center for Research and Reform in Education (CRRE)

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    Impact Evaluation of Imagine MyPath in Moline-Coal Valley School District
    (Center for Research and Reform in Education, 2023-11) Cook, Michael; Storey, Nathan; Eisinger, Jane; Barros, Maria Jose; Ross, Steven
    The current study was a mixed-methods evaluation designed to provide efficacy evidence for Imagine Learning’s Imagine MyPath program, as well as data regarding program implementation and teacher perceptions. Achievement impacts were determined by comparing treatment students in kindergarten in the Moline-Coal Valley School District to comparison students identified by NWEA’s Similar Schools Report who did not use the program. Results of the main impact analyses showed mixed patterns of results regarding the efficacy of Imagine MyPath. A significant positive impact of Imagine MyPath on student mathematics achievement gains was evidenced, with treatment students outgaining virtual comparison students by slightly more than 2 points on the NWEA MAP Growth Mathematics assessment. Perceptions of the Imagine MyPath program from Moline-Coal Valley School District teachers were generally positive. Overall, the majority of teachers agreed they would like to use the program again in the future and would recommend it to others. Teachers were highly positive regarding the organization of the program and its impact on student learning. Most teachers agreed that Imagine MyPath helped students improve their reading and mathematics skills and that the program addressed gaps in their knowledge about these subjects. They also largely agreed that the program placed students at the appropriate level initially, challenged them appropriately throughout the program, presented them with content appropriate to their skill level, motivated them to persist through difficult content, and met the needs of diverse learners.
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    Impact Evaluation of Progress Learning in the Douglas County School System
    (Center for Research and Reform in Education, 2024-01) Cook, Michael; Eisinger, Jane; Ross, Steven
    The current study was a retrospective mixed-methods quasi-experimental design (QED) study to determine the effects of Progress Learning on Grades 6-8 mathematics and ELA achievement by comparison growth on the Georgia Milestones Mathematics and ELA assessments of students who received Progress Learning services, in relation to students that did not receive Progress Learning. Supplementary analyses examining the associations between Progress Learning usage metrics and achievement gains are also performed in this study. The results of the main impact analyses showed a positive and statistically significant impact of Progress Learning on student mathematics achievement, with treatment students outgaining comparison students by more than 4 points. The results of the main ELA impact analysis showed a directionally positive, though not statistically significant, impact on ELA achievement, with treatment students outgaining comparison students by more than 3 points. Effect sizes of these analyses ranged between .06 to .09 SDs, indicating small, though practically meaningful, program impacts of Progress Learning on student achievement, especially in mathematics. Usage analyses showed significant positive associations between student-level Progress Learning usage metrics and achievement gains. Correlations between average Progress Learning activity scores and achievement gains were of particular note, with observed correlations of magnitude above .4 in ELA and above .6 in mathematics. This gives preliminary evidence supporting modest to moderate predictive validity of Progress Learning activity scores in relation to Georgia Milestones scores. These associations remained significant and positive when controlling for prior achievement and demographics, using HLMs similar to those used in the main impact analyses.
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    Randomized-Control Efficacy Study of IXL Math in Holland Public Schools
    (Center for Research and Reform in Education, 2023-12) Copeland, Susan; Cook, Michael; Grant, Ashley; Ross, Steven
    This study examined perceptions and effectiveness of IXL Math by using a cluster randomized-control trial (RCT) in Grades 3-5 in the four elementary schools in HPS during the spring of 2023. The RCT design randomly assigned teachers (classes) within these grades in individual schools to implement IXL Math or continue with business as usual within their classrooms. Accordingly, teachers represented the units of analyses. Eleven Grade 3-5 classrooms across four schools were randomly selected to use IXL Math, while the remaining (control) classrooms across the same four schools conducted business-as-usual instruction. Outcome measures for this study included the end-of-year (EOY) Renaissance Star Math and spring 2023 M-STEP Mathematics scores. A survey was also made available for voluntary completion to IXL Math teachers in Grades 3-5. The response rate was high, with nine of the 11 teachers who used IXL Math responding to the survey. Survey participants completed Likert-scale items relating to their perceptions of professional development, satisfaction, curriculum alignment, and program usage, along with open-ended items relating to program strengths and weaknesses and suggestions for future IXL Math implementation in HPS. A significant positive impact of IXL Math on student mathematics achievement was observed for Grades 3-5 students in HPS. Treatment students made approximately 10-point larger gains on the Renaissance Star Math assessment than did control students. The effect size of this impact was 0.13 SDs, indicating a small to moderate practical impact of IXL Math on student mathematics achievement. Subgroup analyses showed that IXL Math had additional significant positive impacts on Hispanic, special education, ELL, and free and reduced meal (FARMS) students, with the magnitudes of these impacts ranging from 13 to 17 points. Descriptive analyses of student program usage showed that Grade 3 students averaged the most time spent using the program, at about 10 hours total. This was followed by Grade 5 and Grade 4 students, at approximately eight and seven hours of average usage, respectively. Pearson correlations showed significant positive associations between counts of skills practiced/proficient/mastered and EOY Star Math and M-STEP Mathematics scores across all grade levels, with correlations ranging between .30-.57 in magnitude. Regression models similar to the main impact analyses showed that measures of student program time (measures of minutes and active weeks) were all significantly positively associated with Renaissance Star Math and M-STEP Mathematics achievement gains.
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    A Study of Educator Attitudes and Beliefs and Goalbook Toolkit Usage
    (Center for Research and Reform in Education, 2023-10) Webb, Jessica; Cook, Michael; Grant, Ashley; Ross, Steven
    The purpose of the present descriptive study was to examine the relationship between Goalbook Toolkit usage and educators’ attitudes and beliefs, including regarding their self-efficacy for special education instructional design, their job satisfaction, and their intentions to stay in their current position and in the field of education. As described by Goalbook, Goalbook Toolkit helps educators identify students’ needs and strengths, design individualized goals and instructional plans, and identify effective instructional strategies, which overall aim to enhance effectiveness and efficiency of instructional practice. Specifically, Goalbook Toolkit provides tools and resources to support educators in unpacking standards; developing data-driven present level statements that articulate students’ needs and strengths; creating goals that are measurable, standard-aligned, and scaffolded; and identifying instructional strategies and designing instruction aligned to individualized educational plan (IEP) goals. Goalbook is used primarily by special educators and supports the development of IEPs and special education instructional planning, and it is also used by general educators for Universal Design for Learning, differentiation, and intervention. This descriptive study analyzed survey and Goalbook Toolkit usage data collected by Goalbook to document and explore ways that educators use Goalbook, their perceptions of the application, and their attitudes and beliefs about their work as educators. Goalbook routinely collects data on activities that users perform in the Goalbook application, such as viewing and downloading resources, creating goals and strategies, and sharing resources with other educators. Some Goalbook users were invited to complete a survey before they received training on Goalbook in the 2022-23 school year. All Goalbook users with an account that had been activated by October 31 were invited to take the annual user survey in November 2022. Goalbook account holders invited to take the pre-training survey were also invited to take a year-end survey. These surveys included closed- and open-response items about participants’ teaching role and experience, their usage of and attitudes about Goalbook, and/or their attitudes and beliefs about their work as educators. This study is envisioned as the first in a series of annual studies about the relationship between Goalbook usage and educators’ attitudes and beliefs about their work.
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    Financial, Equity, and Systems Gap Analysis: Removing Barriers and Creating Opportunities in Education in Beaver County, Pennsylvania
    (Center for Research and Reform in Education, 2021-11) Ross, Steven; Reilly, Joseph; Alberg, Marty
    The Center for Research and Reform in Education (CRRE) at Johns Hopkins University, in collaboration with Community Catalyst Partners (CCP), and The Management Solution (TMS) conducted a year-long, multi-faceted study for the Quality Education Council (QEC) of the Beaver County Partnership for Community and Economic Growth. The QEC is one of five pillars identified by the Beaver County partnership to grow the county. We specifically designed our study to address Phase III goals of the QEC’s four-phase initiative to “provide a high-level overview of the county’s current public education system within the context of demographic trends and fiscal sustainability” through several focuses: • Benchmarking six communities, four in Pennsylvania and two out of state, that have demonstrated success in population growth and quality of education, for purposes of identifying potential strategies and best practices for achieving quality education and community development. • Stakeholder Analysis and Engagement for purposes of developing cross-sector community buy-in and trust, critical feedback, and ideas to inform immediate recommendations and Phase IV implementation planning. • Financial Analyses for purposes of identifying revenue and expenditure practices by county school districts over time and relative to the benchmark communities and enrollment patterns. The Benchmarking study was designed to examine the educational practices, strategies, and programs employed by high-achieving school systems outside of Beaver County. The purpose was to identify potential strategies that the county may consider as it plans and implements solution activities in Phase IV. For this portion of the project, we conducted case studies of select communities, four in Pennsylvania and two out of state. From a comprehensive initial search for comparison counties, we selected the following six as the benchmarking sample: (1) Allegan County, MI; (2) Butler County, PA; (3) Cameron County, TX; (4) Dauphin County, PA; (5) Pittsburgh, PA; and (6) York County, PA. These communities were those that we identified as having high quality educational programming and population stability or growth, as well as characteristics that appeared well-aligned with the goals of achieving educational equity and success across a diverse array of schools. Pittsburgh, a geographically close urban center, was selected based on strong QEC interest. Cameron County, in the Rio Grande Valley of Texas, was selected based on its participation in recent initiatives to develop community partnerships and improve education. Findings from these case studies revealed that within the benchmarking communities, four key areas appeared to be consistently prioritized by local school district and community leaders as the central focal points of their programming, budgeting, and strategizing. These focal points included (1) college and career readiness, (2) academic quality, (3) equity and opportunity, and (4) parent and community engagement. For each of these areas, we identify key programs implemented by the communities as potential considerations for adaptation by Beaver County. The main technical report provides case study overviews of each benchmarking community and also details these exemplar programs with regard to rationale, implementation, and outcomes.
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    The Impact of Restorative Practices with Diplomas Now on School Climate and Teachers' Turnover Intentions: Evidence from a Cluster Multi-Site Randomized Control Trial
    (Journal of Research on Educational Effectiveness, 2022-01-26) Grant, Ashley; Mac Iver, Douglas; Mac Iver, Martha
    High teacher turnover rates and shortages of quality teachers plague many large, urban U.S. school districts disadvantaging their students who often already come from traditionally underserved populations and communities. Restorative Practices is a quickly growing whole school approach to community building and discipline, but little is known about how it impacts teachers and their career decisions. This study specifically investigates whether assignment to Restorative Practices (in combination with Diplomas Now, RP w/DN) improves school climate and increases teachers’ reported intentions to remain at their school? To answer this question, we analyzed data from a multi-site, cluster randomized control trial of in 25 schools from seven large cities across the United States. Our intent-to-treat analyses find that RP w/DN has a significantly positive effect on school climate (ES ¼ .15, .27). Impacts on teachers’ turnover intentions were non-significant, but it significantly reduced perceptions of problematic teacher absenteeism (a related, exploratory outcome). Overall, the findings from this study suggest that Restorative Practices as a policy can improve school climate, but its relationship with teachers’ career decisions is more complicated.
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    Demography as Destiny: Explaining the Turnover of Alternatively Certified Mathematics Teachers in Hard-to-Staff Schools
    (Teachers College Record SAGE Publications, 2022) Grant, Ashley; Brantlinger, Andrew
    Background: To stem the tide of teacher turnover and prevent shortages, teacher turnover interventions and policies often focus on new and novice teachers because evidence suggests that teacher turnover is particularly high among these teachers. In addition, researchers continue to investigate the root causes of the high teacher turnover observed in many low-income, high-minority schools and whether this is due more to school demographics or poor working conditions. Purpose: This article examines New York City Teaching Fellows (NYCTF) teachers’ risk of leaving their first school in their first 9 years. It both describes the patterns in leaving and examines how school demographics and school climate predict these leaving patterns. Participants: The study follows 608 teachers: two cohorts of secondary mathematics NYCTF teachers who entered the classroom in New York City in 2006 or 2007. Research Design: This is a quantitative study of survey and retention data that were collected as part of a longitudinal research project on NYCTF mathematics teachers. Data Analysis: We use an event history analysis (including a life table and hazard function graphs) to describe patterns in teachers’ timing of leaving their first school. We also use a discrete time hazard model to estimate the relative relationships between the predictors of interest (school demographics and school climate) and teacher turnover. Results: The findings from this study provide evidence against the general hypothesis in the field that teachers leave their first schools at the highest rate during their first 1 to 3 years. Second, we also found that the turnover of alternatively certified teachers who began in low-income, high-minority urban schools was driven by both student demographics and school climate conditions, including teacher collegiality and student behavior. Third, we found evidence to support our hypothesis that teachers’ individual perceptions of their school environment are stronger drivers of their turnover compared with the perceptions of their colleagues. Conclusion: The results from this study add to our understanding about the timing of teacher turnover among secondary mathematics NYCTF teachers, illustrating that teacher turnover may remain higher later in beginning teachers’ careers than currently assumed. This suggests that teachers in Years 3 to 5 in their careers may be good targets for supports. Our findings support the theory that improving school climate can help retain teachers but also provide a cautionary tale for a complete focus on school climate; stemming teacher turnover may require addressing larger economic forces (e.g., the global trend toward temporary work) and more insidious social forces, such as structural racism and inequality.
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    Evaluation of Dynamic Impact in Worcester County Public Schools Phase I
    (Center for Research and Reform in Education, 2022-09) Morrison, Jennifer; Webb, Jessica; Reilly, Joseph; Laurenzano, Mary; Eisinger, Jane
    The purpose of the present study was to evaluate the implementation of Dynamic Impact (DI) in Worcester County Public Schools (WCPS) by Johns Hopkins’s Center for Technology in Education (CTE). As described by CTE, DI builds the capacity of school districts to form and sustain high-performing teams using several protocols to guide their work together as they implement school improvement plans. This descriptive study collected and analyzed quantitative and qualitative data to document perceptions of DI as implemented in WCPS, including regarding the experience of being on a DI team, fidelity of implementation, and perceived impact. All members of DI teams were asked to complete a survey that included closed- and open-response questions, and a selection of teachers, school administrators, and district personnel participated in focus groups. Data collection took place during the spring semester of 2022. In survey responses and focus groups, participants characterized the experience of being a DI team member as being defined by coordinated, purposeful efforts to set goals, identify root causes, analyze germane data, and continually monitor plans and progress, making adjustments to plans as appropriate. Guiding team members in these efforts are clear protocols that structure teams’ work and help ensure that all team members are positioned to contribute to plans and implementation and are accountable for doing so. CTE staff provide materials, training, coaching, and assistance to support teams in their work, and DI team members seem to respect the CTE team’s expertise and value their support. Participants generally reported a smooth experience, despite some frustrations around logistics and workload. While the expectations of DI team members are high, particularly given other demands on educators’ time, team members for the most part reported strong investment in the DI process and high fidelity in implementing its protocols. Participants generally indicated that they believe DI protocols are effective and that DI is strengthening their schools. Benefits identified included effective teaming and collaboration; shared vision and coordinated activity around goals, informed by data and involving well-chosen interventions; and ongoing engagement with the SIP as a living document. The most common area for improvement that participants noted was to increase the engagement and investment of educators at their schools beyond those on the DI teams.
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    The Impact of the Frog Street Pre-K Curriculum on 2021-22 Pre-K Gains and Kindergarten Readiness
    (2023-01-31) Grant, Ashley; Cook, Michael; Ross, Steven
    The purpose of the present study was to examine Frog Street Pre-K curriculum efficacy by comparing learning outcomes for pre-K students in schools with access to Frog Street in Texas during the 2021-22 school year to outcomes for pre-K students in Texas schools without Frog Street. This study is designed to replicate and extend those employed by NORC (the National Opinion Research Center) at the University of Chicago in 2018, using data from the same assessment (CIRCLE). The NORC studies yielded mixed results, some favoring the Frog Street Pre-K curriculum (particularly for kindergarten readiness) and some not, but a concern was that classifications of schools as users or non-users of the curriculum were not sufficiently accurate for the 2017-18 school year. This limitation is not expected to occur with the present, 2021-22 classifications.
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    An Evaluation of the Literacy-Infused Science Using Technology Innovation Opportunity (LISTO)
    (2022-12) Wolf, Rebecca; Cook, Michael; Grant, Ashley; Reid, Alan; Neitzel, Amanda; Ross, Steven; Risman, Kelsey
    The evaluation of LISTO involved a multisite cluster randomized trial (CRT) designed to meet the Every Student Succeeds Act (ESSA) Tier 2 standards for “moderate” evidence, as well as the What Works Clearinghouse (WWC) standards "with reservations." The study estimated program impacts on both student and teacher outcomes and documented the fidelity of implementation and educators’ perceptions of program quality. Schools with participating fifth grade science teachers were randomly assigned to either the treatment or control condition. Schools were randomly assigned within district blocks when more than one school in a district chose to participate in the study. Fifth grade science teachers may have participated in the intervention for either one or two years over the 2017–18 and 2018–19 school years, and some teachers were allowed to join the study after the random assignment of schools. Students were exposed to the intervention only in their fifth-grade year, either in the 2017–18 or 2018–19 school year. Again, data for the year 2017–18 reflected a low fidelity of implementation for the entire first semester, due to the reasons previously discussed. The resulting impacts included delaying the beginning of year testing, curriculum implementation, baseline observations, and professional development schedules for the original confirmatory group. Outcomes collected in the 2017–18 school year were considered to be exploratory, given the timing of Hurricane Harvey, which hit Texas in August of 2017, as mentioned earlier. Outcomes in the 2018–19 school year served as the confirmatory contrasts. In both school years, students were exposed to the program through their teachers in only their fifth-grade year. One year of exposure for students may have been insufficient to increase student achievement in science or reading, yet some impacts were observed. And, due to the COVID-19 pandemic, in Year 3, only BISA, ITBS science, and science interest survey scores were collected and only in the fall of the 2019–20 school year. STAAR Science and Reading scores were not collected during Year 3 (2019–20). Thus, the only contrasts we were able to conduct on student achievement were those focusing on Year 4 administrations of STAAR Science and Reading, BISA, ITBS Science, and the science interest survey.
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    The Impacts of i-Ready Personalized Instruction on Student Math Achievement in Multiple School Districts
    (Center for Research and Reform in Education, 2022-02) Cook, Michael; Grant, Ashley; Ross, Steven
    The purpose of this evaluation was to examine the impact of i-Ready Personalized Instruction on mathematics achievement, as measured by MCAS scores, in multiple school districts in Massachusetts. We compared students who received i-Ready Personalized Instruction with students who only participated in i-Ready Diagnostic testing. We also examined associations between various i-Ready usage metrics and achievement. Key findings revealed that i-Ready Personalized Instruction was associated with mathematics achievement gains; usage metrics were higher in elementary schools; and meeting usage guidance was associated with mathematics gains on the MCAS state assessment in math.
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    Bet on Baltimore Yr 4 Final Report
    (Center for Research and Reform in Education, 2022-01) Laurenzano, Mary; Reilly, Joseph; Ross, Steven
    Bet on Baltimore is an intensive summer youth development program with a focus on creativity, hands-on experience, community impact, and entrepreneurship created by Dent Education in 2017 and designed for Baltimore City public high school students. The goals are to engage high school students in Baltimore in meaningful work, leadership, and personal development activities and, according to the program’s developers, to “catalyze student potential and prepare them to create impact and value in a 21st century economy.” Dent Education’s mission is to “promote equity by empowering under-resourced youth to discover and develop their innate creative potential to shape the world around them.” Through its curriculum, Dent Education seeks to introduce students to the creative problem-solving process of design thinking, maker skills, and the experiences of entrepreneurship and networking. Students identify community issues and business challenges, meet with community and business leaders, learn new skills, and work to create their own social or business enterprise.
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    Reading Roots 5th Edition: Reading "Between the Lions": Project Summary and Evaluation
    (Center for Research and Reform in Education, 2021-12-14) Qiyang, Zhang; Amanda, Neitzel
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    Evaluation of Istation's Early Reading Assessment and Curriculum in Spartanburg County School District 7 Final Report
    (Center for Research and Reform in Education, 2021-02) Cook, Michael; Ross, Steven
    The purpose of this evaluation was to examine the association between ISIP scores and usage and student achievement and growth on ELA standardized test measures, as well as to compare MAP Reading assessment growth of SCSD-7 Istation students in relation to that of otherwise similar students who did not use Istation. This report includes findings from student usage and achievement data on ISIP ER and AR assessments, as well as on the SC READY ELA state assessment and NWEA MAP reading assessment Results showed that Istation students significantly outgained virtual comparison students, with this pattern especially pronounced for the younger cohort of students. SCSD-7 students were matched with virtual comparison students on the basis of prior reading achievement and demographic variables, with a sufficiently large sample size. Thus, this study supports the conclusion that Istation usage is related to larger reading achievement gains, in relation to non-Istation users. Further, the results of this study meet the criteria for meeting WWC Standards with Reservations, as well as those for “Moderate” evidence of the efficacy of Istation in improving student reading performance per the Every Student Succeeds Act (ESSA). Student Istation usage remained fairly consistent across each of the four school years analyzed in this report. Students tended to average between 14-17 hours of total usage each year. Usage was reported as two different measures: total usage and curriculum usage. This allowed for analysis of time students spent working on the Istation curriculum, in addition to total Istation time. Curriculum usage was also relatively steady across years, with students averaging about 13-14 hours of curriculum usage each year. Usage statistics declined markedly in the 2019-20 school year; however, this decline is almost certainly attributable to the disruption in the school year caused by the Covid-19 pandemic.
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    Bet on Baltimore Yr 3 Final Report
    (Center for Research and Reform in Education, 2021-01-31) Laurenzano, Mary; Reilly, Joseph; Ross, Steven
    Bet on Baltimore is a summer youth development program with a focus on creativity, making, and entrepreneurship created by Dent Education in 2017 and designed for Baltimore City public high school students. The goals are to engage high school students in Baltimore in meaningful work, leadership, and personal development activities and, according to the program’s developers, to “catalyze student potential and prepare them to create impact and value in a 21st century economy.” Dent Education’s mission is to “promote equity by empowering under-resourced youth to discover and develop their innate creative potential to shape the world around them.” Through its curriculum, Dent Education seeks to introduce students to the creative problem-solving process of design thinking, maker skills, and the experience of entrepreneurship and networking. Students explore community issues and business challenges, meet with community and business professionals, learn new skills such as 3D printing and music production, and work to create their own social or business enterprise. During the summer of 2020, 10 cohorts of students (n = 138) participated in Bet on Baltimore through a five-week paid summer job opportunity funded by YouthWorks. The cohorts focused in the following areas: Graphic Design, Recording Studio, Social Innovation, Start-up Garage, Web Design, and Made@Dent. The five-week session culminated in a virtual showcase, where students presented their ideas and shared lessons learned for an online audience of more than 300 people. During the summer of 2020, 20 coaches (2 per site) led students through the program with the support of four site supporters and four Fellows.
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    Every Student Succeeds Act (ESSA) Tier 3 Evidence for Istation Early Reading
    (Center for Research and Reform in Education, 2020-06) Wolf, Betsy
    This quasi-experimental study examined whether students who attended schools that piloted Istation’s Early Reading program during the 2017–18 school year had higher average achievement than students who did not attend pilot schools. Performance in reading and English language arts (ELA) was compared for students attending Istation pilot schools and non-pilot schools.
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    Linking 2nd Grade Istation ISIP Reading with 3rd Grade ISAT in English Language Arts
    (Center for Research and Reform in Education, 2020-06) Wolf, Betsy
    This correlational study analyzed how well second grade students’ performance on the ISIP Early Reading test at each administration (e.g., fall, winter, or spring) predicted their third grade spring performance on the ISAT ELA. The ISIP Early Reading test was administered to a subset of second grade students in Idaho in the 2017–18 school year, and student achievement was tracked longitudinally over time through the end of students’ third grade year.
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    An Evaluation of Prodigy: A Case-Study Approach to Implementation and Student Achievement Outcomes
    (Center for Research and Reform in Education, 2020-01) Morrison, Jennifer; Risman, Kelsey; Reilly, Joseph; Eisinger, Jane
    The purpose of the present study was to gather data regarding the implementation of Prodigy in elementary schools in a mid-sized school district in the southern United States. Using a case-study approach, we visited two schools and conducted interviews, focus groups, and classroom observations to examine implementation and outcomes. We also examined student achievement and usage data from the 2018-2019 school year.
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    1:1 Classrooms and Teaching with Technology: A Best Practices Review
    (Center for Research and Reform in Education, 2020-05) Reilly, Joseph; Morrison, Jennifer
    Integrated classrooms and 1:1 initiatives are growing in popularity and maturity. Each year, new school- and district-wide 1:1 initiatives launch. Even if schools are not yet a 1:1 environment, teachers and students likely incorporate and encounter more technology with each passing semester. While new initiatives launch each year, the first wave of initiatives in Maine and Vermont are nearly 20 years old. Not surprisingly, research and philosophy around integrated classrooms and 1:1 initiatives are vast and diverse, with notable increases in production by researchers and industry leaders in the last 10 years. This is good news, as teachers and administrators need varying research-based supports based on initiative goals, tenure, and history/context of the school/district to assist with implementation and development. The purpose of this document is to highlight best practices for teachers in 1:1 classrooms. This means actual teaching practices, with examples, that are actionable and measurable, and supported by recent research on what makes for effective teaching with technology. We have identified and briefly explained 8 best practices, and provided further reading related to each. The document begins with a presentation of two prominent frameworks for effective teaching with technology: The Technological Pedagogical and Content Knowledge (TPACK) model and the Integrating Technology for Inquiry (NTeQ) model. We then present best practices that supersede these individual models.
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    FCPSOn Phase One Evaluation: Year Three
    (Center for Research and Reform in Education, 2019-09) Morrison, Jennifer; Risman, Kelsey; Ross, Steven; Latham, Gavin; Reid, Alan; Cook, Michael
    The purpose of the present study was to gather formative and summative data related to the FCPSOn initiative during its third year of implementation in the 2018-19 school year within Fairfax County Public Schools (FCPS). The present study documents program implementation in 15 Phase One schools and stakeholder feedback for future FCPSOn schools. Key components of FCPSOn include the distribution of personal laptops to all students in Phase One schools, professional development (PD), and the resulting impact on intermediary outcomes relating to the goals of improving students’ content area knowledge and Portrait of a Graduate skills. The present findings from schools now in their third year (2018-19) of implementing FCPSOn indicate that stakeholders are strongly invested in the initiative’s success and are more comfortable overall with the 1:1 learning environment. Important differences in implementation are observed between the two groups that comprise Phase One that appear to be the result of a more cohesive and intentional approach to implementation in the Chantilly Pyramid than in eLearning Backpack schools. Nonetheless, SBTSs and principals in both types of schools commended their teachers for being more effective users of technology tools and, as a result, more flexible and effective teachers. Findings also suggest that students are more engaged and accountable learners. Students have gained important skills and have embraced an emerging emphasis on self-guided learning. Guaranteed access to a personal computer has succeeded in “leveling the playing field” among students of varying socio-economic backgrounds, learning interests, and needs.