On October 5, 2009, Carol Greider, Ph.D., one of the world’s pioneering researchers on the structure of chromosome ends known as telomeres, was awarded the 2009 Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine by the Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences. The Academy recognized her for her 1984 discovery of telomerase (ta-LAW-mer-ace), an enzyme that maintains the length and integrity of chromosome ends and is critical for the health and survival of all living cells and organisms.

Greider, is the Daniel Nathans Professor and Director of Molecular Biology and Genetics in the Johns Hopkins Institute for Basic Biomedical Sciences. This JScholarship collection showcases some of her ground-breaking research

Recent Submissions

  • Short Telomeres Limit Tumor Progression In Vivo by Inducing Senescence 

    Greider, Carol W.; Feldser, David M. (Cell Press, 2007-05)
    Telomere maintenance is critical for cancer progression. To examine mechanisms of tumor suppression induced by short telomeres, we crossed mice deficient for the RNA component of telomerase, mTR(-/-), with Emu-myc transgenic ...
  • Identification of a Specific Telomere Terminal Transferase Activity in Tetrahymena Extracts 

    Blackburn, Elizabeth H.; Greider, Carol W. (Cell Press, 1985-12)
    We have found a novel activity in Tetrahymena cell free extracts that adds tandem TTGGGG repeats onto synthetic telomere primers. The single-stranded DNA oligonucleotides (TTGGGG)4 and TGTGTGGGTGTGTGGGTGTGTGGG, consisting ...
  • The Telomere Terminal Transferase of Tetrahymena Is a Ribonucleoprotein Enzyme with Two Kinds of Primer Specificity 

    Blackburn, Elizabeth H.; Greider, Carol W. (Cell Press, 1987-12-24)
    We have analyzed the de novo telomere synthesis catalyzed by the enzyme telomere terminal transferase (telomerase) from Tetrahymena. Oligonucleotides representing the G-rich strand of telomeric sequences from five different ...
  • Chromosome first aid 

    Greider, Carol W. (Cell Press, 1991-11-15)
  • Purification of Tetrahymena Telomerase and Cloning of Genes Encoding the Two Protein Components of the Enzyme 

    Greider, Carol W.; Kobayashi, Ryuji; Collins, Kathleen (Cell Press, 1995-06-02)
    Telomerase is a ribonucleoprotein DNA polymerase that catalyzes the de novo synthesis of telomeric simple sequence repeats. We describe the purification of telomerase and the cloning of cDNAs encoding two protein subunits ...
  • Telomere Shortening and Tumor Formation by Mouse Cells Lacking Telomerase RNA 

    Greider, Carol W.; DePinho, Ronald A.; Lansdorp, Peter M.; Semper, Enrique; Hande, M. Prakash; Lee, Han-Woong; Blasco, Maria A. (Cell Press, 1997-10-03)
    To examine the role of telomerase in normal and neoplastic growth, the telomerase RNA component (mTR) was deleted from the mouse germline. mTR-/- mice lacked detectable telomerase activity yet were viable for the six ...
  • Longevity, Stress Response, and Cancer in Aging Telomerase-Deficient Mice 

    DePinho, Ronald A.; Greider, Carol W.; Gottlieb, Geoffrey J.; Blasco, Maria; Lee, Han-Woong; Chang, Sandy; Rudolph, Karl Lenhard (Cell Press, 1999-03-05)
    Telomere maintenance is thought to play a role in signaling cellular senescence; however, a link with organismal aging processes has not been established. The telomerase null mouse provides an opportunity to understand the ...
  • Telomeres Do D-Loop–T-Loop 

    Greider, Carol W. (Cell Press, 1999-05-14)
  • Short dysfunctional telomeres impair tumorigenesis in the INK4a(delta2/3) cancer-prone mouse. 

    DePinho, Ronald A.; Greider, Carol W.; Singer, Robert H.; Gottlieb, Geoffrey J.; Lee, Kee-Ho; Femino, Andrea; Chin, Lynda; Greenberg, Roger A. (Cell Press, 1999-05-14)
    Maintenance of telomere length is predicted to be essential for bypass of senescence and crisis checkpoints in cancer cells. The impact of telomere dysfunction on tumorigenesis was assessed in successive generations of ...
  • p53 Deficiency Rescues the Adverse Effects of Telomere Loss and Cooperates with Telomere Dysfunction to Accelerate Carcinogenesis 

    DePinho, Ronald A.; Greider, Carol W.; Gottlieb, Geoffrey J.; Lee, Shwu-Luan; Tam, Alice; Shen, Qiong; Artandi, Steven E.; Chin, Lynda (Cell Press, 1999-05-14)
    Maintenance of telomere length and function is critical for the efficient proliferation of eukaryotic cells. Here, we examine the interactions between telomere dysfunction and p53 in cells and organs of telomerase-deficient ...
  • Secondary structure of vertebrate telomerase RNA 

    Greider, Carol W.; Blasco, Maria A.; Chen, Jiunn-Liang (Cell Press, 2000-03-03)
    Telomerase is a ribonucleoprotein enzyme that maintains telomere length by adding telomeric sequence repeats onto chromosome ends. The essential RNA component of telomerase provides the template for telomeric repeat ...
  • Telomere Dysfunction Increases Mutation Rate and Genomic Instability 

    Greider, Carol W.; Feldser, David M.; Hackett, Jennifer A. (Cell Press, 2001-08-10)
    The increased tumor incidence in telomerase null mice suggests that telomere dysfunction induces genetic instability. To test this directly, we examined mutation rate in the absence of telomerase in S. cerevisiae. The ...
  • The Shortest Telomere, Not Average Telomere Length, Is Critical for Cell Viability and Chromosome Stability 

    Greider, Carol W.; Hao, Ling-Yang; Strong, Margaret A.; Hemann, Michael T. (Cell Press, 2001-10-05)
    Loss of telomere function can induce cell cycle arrest and apoptosis. To investigate the processes that trig- ger cellular responses to telomere dysfunction, we crossed mTR􏰀/􏰀 G6 mice that have short telomeres with mice ...
  • Tracking Telomerase 

    Blackburn, Elizabeth H.; Greider, Carol W. (2004-01-23)
  • Short Telomeres, even in the Presence of Telomerase, Limit Tissue Renewal Capacity 

    Greider, Carol W.; Huso, David; Feldser, David M.; Karim, Baktiar; Strong, Margaret A.; Armanios, Mary; Hao, Ling-Yang (Cell Press, 2005-12-16)
    Autosomal-dominant dyskeratosis congenita is associated with heterozygous mutations in telomerase. To examine the dosage effect of telomerase, we generated a line of mTR+/ÿ mice on the CAST/EiJ background, which has short ...
  • Functional reconstitution of wild-type and mutant Tetrahymena telomerase 

    Greider, Carol W.; Autexier, Chantal (Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory Press, 1994-03-01)
    Telomerase is a ribonucleoprotein that catalyzes telomere elongation in vitro and in vivo. The 159-nucleotide RNA component of Tetrahymena telomerase contains the sequence 5'-CAACCCCAA-3' ("template region"), which serves ...
  • The RNA component of human telomerase 

    Greider, Carol W.; Feng, Junli (American Association for the Advancement of Science, 1995-09-01)
    Eukaryotic chromosomes are capped with repetitive telomere sequences that protect the ends from damage and rearrangements. Telomere repeats are synthesized by telomerase, a ribonucleic acid (RNA)-protein complex. Here, the ...
  • Functional characterization and developmental regulation of mouse telomerase RNA 

    Greider, Carol W.; Villeponteau, Bryant; Funk, Walter; Blasco, Maria A. (American Association for the Advancement of Science, 1995-09-01)
    Telomerase synthesizes telomeric DNA repeats onto chromosome ends de novo. The mouse telomerase RNA component was cloned and contained only 65 percent sequence identity with the human telomerase RNA. Alteration of the ...
  • A critical stem-loop structure in the CR4-CR5 domain of mammalian telomerase RNA 

    Greider, Carol W.; Opperman, Kay Keyer; Chen, Jiunn-Liang (Oxford University Press, 2002-01-15)
    Telomerase is an enzyme that maintains telomere length by adding telomeric sequence repeats onto chromosome ends. The telomerase ribonucleoprotein complex consists of two essential components, a reverse transcriptase and ...
  • Wild-derived inbred mouse strains have short telomeres 

    Greider, Carol W.; Hemann, Michael T. (Oxford University Press, 2000-11-15)
    Telomere length and telomerase activity directly affect the replicative capacity of primary human cells. Some have suggested that telomere length influences organismal lifespan. We compared telomere length distributions ...

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