HoloPHAM: An Augmented Reality Training System For Upper Limb Myoelectric Prosthesis Users
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From hook-shaped prosthetic devices to myoelectric prostheses with increased functional capabilities such as the Modular Prosthetic Limb (MPL), upper limb prostheses have come a long way. However, user acceptance rate does not show a similar increasing trend. Functional use training is incorporated into occupational therapy for myoelectric prosthesis users to bridge this gap. Advancements in technology for virtual and augmented reality enable the application of immersive virtual environments in prosthesis user training. Such training systems have been shown to result in higher user performance and participation in training exercises. The work presented here introduces the application of augmented reality (AR) in myoelectric prosthesis user training. This was done through the development of HoloPHAM, an AR training tool designed to mimic a real-world training protocol called Prosthetic Hand Assessment Measure (PHAM). This AR system was built for use with the Microsoft HoloLens, thus requiring a motion tracking system that could enable the user to move around freely in a room. The Bluetooth Orientation Tracking System (BOTS) was developed as an inertial measurement unit (IMU)-based wireless motion tracking system for this purpose. Performance of BOTS as a motion tracker was evaluated by comparison with the Microsoft Kinect sensor. Results showed that BOTS out-performed the Kinect sensor as a motion tracking system for our intended application in HoloPHAM. BOTS and the Myo armband were combined to form a human-machine interface (HMI) to control the virtual arm of HoloPHAM, enabling virtual object manipulation. This HMI along with the virtual PHAM set-up makes HoloPHAM a portable AR training environment that can be applied for prosthesis user training or evaluation of new myoelectric control strategies.