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dc.contributor.advisorVidal, Rene
dc.creatorSchwab, Evan Daniel
dc.date.accessioned2018-10-03T02:04:25Z
dc.date.available2018-10-03T02:04:25Z
dc.date.created2018-05
dc.date.issued2018-03-02
dc.date.submittedMay 2018
dc.identifier.urihttp://jhir.library.jhu.edu/handle/1774.2/59156
dc.description.abstractNeuroimaging provides a window into the inner workings of the human brain to diagnose and prevent neurological diseases and understand biological brain function, anatomy, and psychology. Diffusion Magnetic Resonance Imaging (dMRI) is an emerging medical imaging modality used to study the anatomical network of neurons in the brain, which form cohesive bundles, or fiber tracts, that connect various parts of the brain. Since about 73% of the brain is water, measuring the flow, or diffusion of water molecules in the presence of fiber bundles, allows researchers to estimate the orientation of fiber tracts and reconstruct the internal wiring of the brain, in vivo. Diffusion MRI signals can be modeled within two domains: the spatial domain consisting of voxels in a brain volume and the diffusion or angular domain, where fiber orientation is estimated in each voxel. Researchers aim to estimate the probability distribution of fiber orientation in every voxel of a brain volume in order to trace paths of fiber tracts from voxel to voxel over the entire brain. Therefore, the traditional framework for dMRI processing and analysis has been from a voxel-wise vantage point with added spatial regularization considered post-hoc. In contrast, we propose a new joint spatial-angular representation of dMRI data which pairs signals in each voxel with the global spatial environment, jointly. This has the ability to improve many aspects of dMRI processing and analysis and re-envision the core representation of dMRI data from a local perspective to a global one. In this thesis, we propose three main contributions which take advantage of such joint spatial-angular representations to improve major machine learning tasks applied to dMRI: sparse coding, compressed sensing, and dictionary learning. First, we will show that we can achieve sparser representations of dMRI by utilizing a global spatial-angular dictionary instead of a purely voxel-wise angular dictionary. As dMRI data is very large in size, we provide a number of novel extensions to popular spare coding algorithms that perform efficient optimization on a global-scale by exploiting the separability of our dictionaries over the spatial and angular domains. Next, compressed sensing is used to accelerate signal acquisition based on an underlying sparse representation of the data. We will show that our proposed representation has the potential to push the limits of the current state of scanner acceleration within a new compressed sensing model for dMRI. Finally, sparsity can be further increased by learning dictionaries directly from datasets of interest. Prior dictionary learning for dMRI learn angular dictionaries alone. Our third contribution is to learn spatial-angular dictionaries jointly from dMRI data directly to better represent the global structure. Traditionally, the problem of dictionary learning is non-convex with no guarantees of finding a globally optimal solution. We derive the first theoretical results of global optimality for this class of dictionary learning problems. We hope the core foundation of a joint spatial-angular representation will open a new perspective on dMRI with respect to many other processing tasks and analyses. In addition, our contributions are applicable to any general signal types that can benefit from separable dictionaries. We hope the contributions in this thesis may be adopted in the larger signal processing, computer vision, and machine learning communities. dMRI signals can be modeled within two domains: the spatial domain consisting of voxels in a brain volume and the diffusion or angular domain, where fiber orientation is estimated in each voxel. Computationally speaking, researchers aim to estimate the probability distribution of fiber orientation in every voxel of a brain volume in order to trace paths of fiber tracts from voxel to voxel over the entire brain. Therefore, the traditional framework for dMRI processing and analysis is from a voxel-wise, or angular, vantage point with post-hoc consideration of their local spatial neighborhoods. In contrast, we propose a new global spatial-angular representation of dMRI data which pairs signals in each voxel with the global spatial environment, jointly, to improve many aspects of dMRI processing and analysis, including the important need for accelerating the otherwise time-consuming acquisition of advanced dMRI protocols. In this thesis, we propose three main contributions which utilize our joint spatial-angular representation to improve major machine learning tasks applied to dMRI: sparse coding, compressed sensing, and dictionary learning. We will show that sparser codes are possible by utilizing a global dictionary instead of a voxel-wise angular dictionary. This allows for a reduction of the number of measurements needed to reconstruct a dMRI signal to increase acceleration using compressed sensing. Finally, instead of learning angular dictionaries alone, we learn spatial-angular dictionaries jointly from dMRI data directly to better represent the global structure. In addition, this problem is non-convex and so we derive the first theories to guarantee convergence to a global minimum. As dMRI data is very large in size, we provide a number of novel extensions to popular algorithms that perform efficient optimization on a global-scale by exploiting the separability of our global dictionaries over the spatial and angular domains. We hope the core foundation of a joint spatial-angular representation will open a new perspective on dMRI with respect to many other processing tasks and analyses. In addition, our contributions are applicable to any separable dictionary setting which we hope may be adopted in the larger image processing, computer vision, and machine learning communities.
dc.format.mimetypeapplication/pdf
dc.language.isoen_US
dc.publisherJohns Hopkins University
dc.subjectmedical image analysis
dc.subjectMRI
dc.subjectdiffusion
dc.subjectHARDI
dc.subjectsparse coding
dc.subjectcompressed sensing
dc.subjectdictionary learning
dc.subjectKronecker
dc.subjecttensor
dc.subjectreconstruction
dc.subjectmachine learning
dc.titleJoint Spatial-Angular Sparse Coding, Compressed Sensing, and Dictionary Learning for Diffusion MRI
dc.typeThesis
thesis.degree.disciplineBiomedical Engineering
thesis.degree.grantorJohns Hopkins University
thesis.degree.grantorWhiting School of Engineering
thesis.degree.levelDoctoral
thesis.degree.namePh.D.
dc.date.updated2018-10-03T02:04:25Z
dc.type.materialtext
thesis.degree.departmentElectrical and Computer Engineering
dc.contributor.committeeMemberCharon, Nicolas
dc.contributor.committeeMemberTran, Trac Duy
dc.contributor.committeeMemberVenkataraman, Archana
dc.publisher.countryUSA


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