ENERGY TRANSITION IN DEVELOPING COUNTRIES: A CASE STUDY OF CHINA AND A COMPARATIVE ANALYSIS WITH INDIA

Abstract
As developing nations like China and India surge onto the global stage, their rapid expansion comes at a cost: a growing dependence on fossil fuels that fuels the looming greenhouse gas crisis. These two rising powers face the monumental challenge of energy transition, disentangling their economies from the carbon legacy of the past. Despite that China and India both put in enormous efforts in energy transition, they have different approaches. This paper focuses on the comparison of China and India in energy transition through analyses of data and policy frameworks. This paper also dissects the interplay of three key elements, which are regulatory structures shaping policy, technological advancements defining energy options, and financial mechanisms driving investments. This research discusses how the three elements interact and influence India and China in their path towards a cleaner and greener future by examining both quantitative data and qualitative factors. China benefited a lot from its centralized government because it can implement any infrastructure that can facilitate renewable energy deployment and advancement efficiently in a top-down manner. India, on the other hand, does not have the benefits of being a centralized nation. It still has fragmented regulatory frameworks that encourage innovation and entrepreneurial vigor in renewable technologies. Understanding China and India's unique energy transition journeys is crucial for policymakers, technology developers, and social activists to examining China and India’s successes and challenges to seek to break free from fossil fuel dependence. This thesis intends to provide actionable insights in policy design, technology deployment, and social mobilization, offering practical tools to build a sustainable future for all.
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