3D PRINTING SMART CAPSULE FOR ORAL DELIVERY OF INSULIN USING MICROINJECTORS
Johns Hopkins University
Over several decades, large molecules such as proteins, antibodies, and peptides have been utilized as therapeutic agents for advanced treatment options. While these macromolecular drugs have demonstrated effectiveness in treating various diseases, there are challenges associated with their oral administration. These challenges primarily involve rapid degradation and poor absorption in the gastrointestinal tract. Enclosed with this letter is a detailed proposal for oral-taking capsules delivering micro-scale devices acting on the gastrointestinal (GI) tract with biodegradable material, high stability, high versatility, low cost, and a smart environmental response release mechanism. The GI tract is the most common target of drug delivery. Larger volumes and lengths in the GI tract have the potential to reduce dosing frequency and improve compliance, such as extended-release formulations and gastrointestinal retention tablets for prolonged release. Compared with conventional drug delivery targets, long-acting drug delivery targets in the GI tract can maintain more constant drug concentrations within the therapeutic period, thereby improving drug pharmacokinetics. This stable concentration enhances the efficacy of the drug, reduces toxic side effects, and improves tolerance, thereby increasing patient compliance. In addition, real-time monitoring of the gastrointestinal environment can reflect the health of intestinal diseases. Researchers have developed many micro-scale devices that function in drug delivery, imaging, monitoring, and even operating small surgery. For these devices with complex structures, the use of oral capsule delivery is a far more reasonable implantation modality than surgery. Therefore, It is necessary to develop a highly versatile oral capsule for targeted gastrointestinal delivery. In conclusion, the development of highly versatile oral capsules containing micro-scale devices presents an exciting opportunity for drug delivery in the treatment of various diseases. These capsules can provide targeted delivery to the gastrointestinal tract, maintain constant drug concentrations, and provide real-time monitoring of the gastrointestinal environment. With ongoing research in this field, we can expect to see the development of novel drug delivery systems that can provide effective and convenient treatments for patients.
3D printing, microfabrication, drug delivery