Focused Ultrasound Treatment of Glioblastoma

Glioblastoma (GB) remains one of the most difficult challenges for neurosurgeons due to its highly vascularized and complex characteristics. Focused ultrasound (FUS) is quickly being integrated into GB research thanks to its ability to treat tumors a distance away from the transducer without harming healthy tissues in its path. Presented here is a comprehensive review of FUS therapies for GB treatment. Therapies include thermal ablation, blood-brain barrier opening, radiosensitization, sonodynamic therapy, and immunomodulation, all of which have the potential to change GB treatment regimens. This thesis reports a minimally invasive high-intensity focused ultrasound (HIFU) probe designed for brain surgery. It has been reduced in size from its previous generation and now possesses steering capabilities in the axial direction. This could take the place of some recurrent GB resection surgeries. Also presented here is a phantom study for a commercial magnetic resonance guided focused ultrasound system, the RK-300, which has the ability to perform most of the therapies mentioned above. The phantom study confirms the functionality of the system, which after lying dormant for a few years is now ready for laboratory research. In transitioning FUS to the clinical setting, there needs to be real-time methods of monitoring surrounding tissue. Here, a fiber optic temperature sensor the width of a human hair is tested and validated for monitoring temperature conditions in the central nervous system.
Focused ultrasound, glioblastoma