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ItemThe Protection of the Rights of Migrant Domestic Workers in a Country of Origin and a Country of Destination: Case Studies of the Philippines and KuwaitAaserud, Julie Louise; Basciano, Tiffany; Braunmiller, Julia; D'Onofrio, Miriam; Flanagan, Kelly; Kalt, Benjamin; Ko, Veronica; Kohlhagen, Kristoff; Mattar, Mohamed; Seiden, Stanley (International Law and Organizations Program, School of Advanced International Studies, Johns Hopkins University, 2013)During the spring semester of 2013, the SAIS International Human Rights Clinic researched the protection and promotion of the rights of migrant domestic workers in a country of origin and a country of destination by example of the Philippines and Kuwait. The students embarked on a weeklong fact-finding mission to gain insights into (a) the underlying causes and social consequences of labor migration, (b) the mechanisms to protect migrant domestic workers from abuse and exploitation, and (c) the preventive activities carried out in the two countries. The findings of the two fact-finding missions, supported by academic research and scholarship, policy papers, and press releases, are published in this report. The report describes the situation of migrant domestic workers from the start of their journey in the Philippines, through their arrival and work in Kuwait, and through their repatriation. The report aims (a) to raise public awareness about the rights of migrant domestic workers; (b) to offer practical solutions to policymakers in countries of origin and destination; and (c) to offer practical solutions specifically to the Kuwaiti and Philippine governments to take decisive action to better prevent human rights abuses, punish human rights violators, and protect vulnerable populations. By focusing on Filipino migrant domestic workers, the report aims to facilitate the further development of Kuwait–Philippines intergovernmental cooperation that may serve as a model for labor-receiving and labor-sending countries. ItemJustice derailed : the uncertain fate of Haitian migrants and Dominicans of Haitian descent in the Dominican RepublicAgase, Liz; Akerlund, Tobias; Basciano, Tiffany; Bundel, Urvashi; Cineas, Grace; Deaton, Holly; Hil, Nicola; Johnson, Tess; Munoz, Amaury; Pan, Li-Ming; Roy, Vanessa (International Law and Organizations Program, School of Advanced International Studies, Johns Hopkins University, 2015)Over time, the Dominican Republic formalized a more restrictive definition of citizenship by birth. By expanding the interpretation of what it means to be “in transit,” the Dominican Republic began to chip away at its jus soli (right of soil) regime. Given the long history of migration from Haiti to the Dominican Republic and demographic realities, this shift has had a disproportionate impact on individuals of Haitian descent. The redefinition of the jus soli basis for citizenship reached its peak in the now infamous sentence of the Constitutional Tribunal of the Dominican Republic, 168-13. In September 2013, the Constitutional Tribunal issued Sentence 168-13, which retroactively denationalized and effectively rendered stateless many Dominicans of Haitian descent by establishing that children born in the Dominican Republic to those illegally residing in the country were not entitled to citizenship by birth, as their parents were considered to be “in transit.” The Sentence further called for a national regularization plan. In an effort to implement Sentence 168-13, the Dominican government established the National Plan for the Regularization of Foreigners (PNRE). The PNRE is a plan to regularize the status of undocumented migrants in the Dominican Republic, which most notably impacts Haitian migrants. Following international backlash over Sentence 168-13, Dominican Republic President Danilo Medina issued Law 169-14 (Naturalization Law), which provides a pathway to naturalization for those effectively left stateless by the Sentence. This report will detail the problems in the implementation of the PNRE and the Naturalization Law, how various actors were involved in or impacted by the regularization and naturalization processes, and finally, will outline the constraints that may inhibit the work of policy makers and human rights defenders in addressing immigration and citizenship issues going forward. ItemChina Studies ReviewFlores, Christian; Rice, Daniel; Walsh, John; Wu, Shan; Xian, Rachel; Zhang, Hao; Schut, Kyle; Brown, Clarise; Jeong, Byeong-Jin; Benitez, Gillea; Yang, Jianyu; Sutherland, Michael; Trang, Eddy; Freeman, Carla; Ross, Madelyn (Johns Hopkins University, Paul H. Nitze School of Advanced International Studies, China Studies Program, 2018)As China’s economic development and increasingly assertive stance in the global arena reverberates both within and outside its borders, we are thrilled to present the fourth edition of the SAIS China Studies Review as a vehicle to increase understanding of both the challenges and opportunities in an ever-evolving China. The first section of this volume examines China’s expanding role in global governance. Hao Zhang’s piece takes stock of China’s norm-setting tendencies on the world stage, and Christian Flores looks at Myanmar as a case study for how the U.S. and China follow different patterns in their treatment of smaller states. Shan Wu’s piece on China’s policy-making regarding North Korea concludes this section. The second set of articles reviews developments in China’s military and aerospace fields. John Walsh’s policy brief on the Wenchang Spacecraft Site provides an overview of the site and its significance to China’s broader aerospace goals. Rachel Xian examines China’ nuclear force and its modernization, and Daniel Rice compares Chinese and American actions in Afghanistan. The issue concludes with SAIS China Studies Review’s interview of esteemed SAIS China Studies Professor David M. Lampton about his observations of China throughout his storied career. ItemThey protect the forests. Who protects them? : the intersection of conservation, development, and human rights of forest defenders: lessons from Kenya, Peru and Sri LankaBasciano, Tiffany; Erskine, M. Caitlin; Golden, Sara L.M.; Hammer, Kady R.; Iannuzzelli, Fabio; Sebbar, Sarah; Singh, Rucheta; Thomure, Natalie K.; Miller, Anne Tousignant; Vasudevan, Anahita; Wilcox, Madison (International Law and Organizations Program, School of Advanced International Studies, Johns Hopkins University, 2017-05)Modern-day forests are center stage in the discussion of how to balance economic development, conservation goals, and human rights. There is much dependence and potential in the world’s forests - from economic development activities, such as mining, logging, and eco-tourism, to management and conservation goals that mitigate climate change, ensure proper watershed management, and protect endangered species, to locals and communities that have traditionally lived in or subsisted from forestland. With so many competing interests, it is unsurprising that tensions exist. However, it is not a zero-sum game. Economic development and conservation goals can be met while respecting human rights. Indeed, they are all interconnected. Environmental human rights defenders (EHRDs), including those protecting forestland, arise against this backdrop. Whether forest-dependent communities protecting traditional access to forests for sustenance or livelihood activities, or indigenous leaders protecting their land from encroachment by a large-scale development project, or a wildlife officer protecting the animals in the forest from poachers, forest defenders are a broad group with varied goals, but they all share the same interest in protecting environmental and land rights. Because of their activities, EHRDs have faced threats to their human rights and challenges to their advocacy work. From restrictions on freedom of speech and assembly to harassment, beatings, and assassinations, being an EHRD can be dangerous. For the 2016-2017 academic year, the SAIS International Human Rights Clinic, in commemoration of the 800th anniversary of the Carta de Foresta and in recognition of the heightened struggles of EHRDs around the world, studied the human rights situation of forest defenders in Kenya, Peru, and Sri Lanka through both desk and field research. The study sought to analyze the root causes which lead individuals and communities to advocate for the respect, protection, or fulfillment of environmental and land rights, as well as the major aspects that impinge on the realization of these rights. The study further sought to understand the respective social, economic, political, cultural, and legal landscapes in which forest defenders operate, as well as the threats and challenges to their human rights because of their work. Finally, the study aimed to provide suggestions for improving the human rights situation of forest defenders, as well as address underlying causes that lead to violations of their rights. ItemNo one left behind? A study on the intersection of women's rights and HIV/AIDS in UgandaBasciano, Tiffany; Buchanan, Kristin; Cox, Tiffany; Davis, Aieshwarya; Dickens, Eleanor; Panayotatos, Daphne; Song, Gheeeun; Sun, Yushuang; Venkataraman, Radhika; Watanasathorn, Ponsawan (International Law and Organizations Program, School of Advanced International Studies, Johns Hopkins University, 2018)A study of the intersection of women's rights and HIV/AIDS in Uganda. This study sought to analyze the underlying factors that contribute to the disproportionate impact of HIV/AIDS on women, including the social, economic, political, cultural, and legal landscapes impacting the HIV/AIDS response. This study further concludes with policy recommendations for improving the HIV/AIDS response through a human rights focused lens. ItemChina Studies ReviewParker, Hope; Chen, Hao; Conrad, Jennifer; Wu, Qiang; Lin, Hongyi; Colella, Mario; Jones, Matthew; Becker, Laura; Lu, Yang; Qi, Yiyuan; Chen, Hao; Negus, Olivia; Long, Shuyi; Lee, Karen; Freeman, Carla; Ross, Madelyn (Johns Hopkins University, Paul H. Nitze School of Advanced International Studies, China Studies Program, 2020)It has never been more important to understand China than now; in the sixth volume of the China Studies Review, our unified analysis of China as a global force gives us the capacity to do so. Understanding China as a major power means having a clear grasp of the dynamics that have shaped the country, to better comprehend the prism through which Chinese policymakers see the international sphere. To this end, we hope to shed light upon China as a global actor through multiple lenses: qualitative evaluation and quantitative analysis play a vital part in our interpretation of China’s key actions abroad, as do articles focused on the distant past and the present day. Hope Parker’s “Two Paths to the Arctic” begins our volume with a comparative study of China and Japan in the Artic Ocean. The divergent approaches taken by these countries in both multilateral forums and direct interactions with Arctic nations show striking differences, deeply influencing China and Japan’s reception within the area. Hao Chen’s “The Failed Alliance in Non-Communist Asia” is an historical analysis of the highest quality, arguing for a new interpretation of Cold War historiography. Hao argues that a full consideration of this time period requires us to go beyond simple U.S./Soviet dichotomies; his presentation of the failed alliance between the Republic of China and the Republic of Korea epitomizes this approach. In Jennifer Conrad’s “The Role of Sanctions in U.S.-China Economic Competition”, we find a clear-eyed presentation of the impact of sanctions on the People’s Republic of China, focusing particularly upon the role of the United States and the case of Huawei Technologies. Qiang Wu’s “China’s Use of Trade Retaliation in Territorial Disputes” looks at trade patterns through a different lens—he uses sophisticated econometric analysis to consider the impact of Chinese diplomatic confrontations on its trade with neighboring countries. Wu presents a surprising conclusion within his four case studies; hostile rhetoric has essentially no impact on affected trade. Finally, Hongyi Lin’s “Between Harmony and Chaos: An Analysis of Grand Strategy in the Ming Dynasty” provides a compelling framework for understanding the international relations of Imperial China, and supports his argument that China cannot be understood without the best of international and Chinese theoretical approaches-- a valid insight today. ItemUS-Japan Yearbook(The Edwin O. Reischauer Center for East Asian Studies, School of Advanced International Studies (SAIS), Johns Hopkins University, 2009)Reischauer Center’s yearbook on U.S.-Japan relations is believed to be one of the longest, continuously-published surveys on bilateral relations between the two countries. The goal of the yearbook is to reflect on recent events in the United States or Japan that have directly or indirectly had an effect on not only bilateral relations, but also the alliance’s changing impact on both regional and global affairs. ItemChina Studies ReviewCollins-Chase, Ned; Van Gilder, Amanda; Li, Miaosu; Pollok, Benjamin; Yi, Minh Joo; Malden, Kaj; Lee, Adam; Connely-Kanmaz, Christina; Keyserling, Alex; Schut, Kyle; Yi, Minh Joo; Zhang, Yuqian (Johns Hopkins University, Paul H. Nitze School of Advanced International Studies, China Studies Program, 2017)The first section of this issue features two brief issue papers. Ned Collins-Chase examines the Qianhai Free Trade Zone and considers its prospects as a tool for Chinese capital account liberalization. Minh Joo Yi surveys China’s foreign policy calculus under Presi-dent Xi Jinping and notes Beijing’s growing assertiveness in foreign affairs. In the second section of this issue, we pres-ent three research articles spanning China’s environment, nuclear weapons strategy, and economy. Miaosu Li analyzes a little understood aspect of China’s wind energy development - the associated environmen-tal costs of rare-earth metal processing - and calls for a more nuanced assessment of Chinese energy policy and implemen-tation. Amanda Van Gilder provides a comprehensive analysis of the nuclear bal-ance between the United States and China. She concludes that while the United States will maintain nuclear superiority for the next one to two decades, the gap will close as China gradually attains doctrinal and tech-nological parity. Benjamin Pollok compares the homeward investment patterns of the diaspora populations of China and India. Pollok attributes China’s greater success in attracting this investment to its active dias-pora engagement policies — a strategy not yet meaningfully pursued by India. ItemChina Studies ReviewBoone, Sam; Chiu, Dominic; Garrahan, Kevin; Hart, Brian; Sutherland, Michael; Woods, Anna; Zhou, Shangsi; Garcia, Naomi; Vaselaar, Rona; Morris, Jake; Osuobeni, Tarela; Wu, Qiang; Freeman, Carla; Ross, Madelyn (Johns Hopkins University, Paul H. Nitze School of Advanced International Studies, China Studies Program, 2019)Our edition begins with Shangsi Zhou’s exploration of the unconventional growth of market capitalism in China’s state-governed economy. Her essay is followed by Sam Boone’s timely review of China’s relationship with the International Criminal Police Organization (Interpol), reflecting on the ways in which China uses international organizations to fulfill domestic goals. The next article is Dominic Chiu’s review of the inefficiency of China’s state sector and the inherent difficulties that exist in reforming state-owned enterprises. The fourth entry is Anna Woods’ examination of China’s growing food insecurity and the ways in which China leverages international organizations and multilateral relationships in attempts to mitigate future shortages. Her work is followed by Brian Hart’s research regarding technological innovation in China in terms of strategic military development, and how this impacts U.S.-China technological competition. Next, Kevin Garrahan examines China’s path to becoming a world leader of innovation, and the challenges presented by China’s current economic structure to this transition. Finally, Michael Sutherland concludes this edition with his review of China’s transition from a “standards taker” to an international “standards maker,” and what this means for international governance organizations. ItemChina Studies Review(Johns Hopkins University, Paul H. Nitze School of Advanced International Studies, China Studies Program, 2014)This inaugural issue of China Studies Review is dedicated to environmental regulation and politics. Tremayne Gibson examines the development of Beijing's nuclear policy and finds that the benefits of nuclear power are married to a weak regulatory structure, the vulnerability of inland nuclear plans to natural disasters, and inadequate policy coordination, which cloud the future of nuclear energy in China. Bo Li looks at the role of the cadre evaluation system in environmental management. Applying studies in Chinese bureaucracy, Li investigates the influences of top-down assignments and bottom-up local autonomy on the effectiveness of environmenal policies. And finally, Ilaria Mozzocco compares emission trading systems in China and the European Union, identifying lessons for related laws and policies moving forward. She highlights a lack of central planning as the foremost challenge to the long-term success of cap and trade programs.